Mammalogy

Mammalogy
Mammalogy

Study of Mammals


The aims of this Department are:

  • To collect, study, monitor and preserve the mammals of the central interior of South Africa and Lesotho
  • To make collection material available for further research
  • To educate and to promote an awareness of our field of study and conservation in the general public


Small mammals

Few people know that approximately two thirds of all mammals (i.e. 66% – not the number of individuals, but the number of species!) are of the other kind. The kind that we often overlook when travelling, sight-seeing, hunting, taking wildlife photographs…the kind that we disregard when planning game reserves/ranches, or calculating stocking rates… small mammals!

Small mammals have been identified as valuable indicators of the health of grasslands. They react rapidly to habitat change, have small home ranges, are reasonably easy to catch, handle and study, and we already have a fair understanding of their general biology. Good quality habitat contains a high diversity of small mammals, while in disturbed or damaged habitat certain species dominate.

Visitors to our Departmental mammal reference collection are amazed to see how many different kinds of mice there are … even more so when told of the densities of these creatures in their habitats. The four-striped mouse, for example, may occur at densities of > 200/ha (compared to 1 Large Stock Unit/8 ha), whilst sharing their environment with five other mouse species!

So why don’t we see them?

Indigenous species are independent of man and, unlike the exotic and commensal house mouse and house rat, very few of them are found close to human dwellings; a fair percentage of these species are solitary. Most of the mice and shrews spend almost 100% of their time in dense vegetation and are regarded as secretive. Furthermore, three species spend 99.9% of their lives underground, while two species spend most of their time in disused termitaria. Approximately 49 mammal species (60% of small mammals) are nocturnal or predominantly nocturnal. Taking all these factors into account, it is therefore not surprising that our indigenous mammal fauna appears more than 50% “poorer” to the average citizen.

Today we know that these small mammals are excellent indicators of ecosystem integrity (the health of the ecosystem). The following factors can give an indication of ecosystem integrity:

  • The presence or absence of specific indicators such as ecosystem engineers (i.e. animals that prepare the environment for other organisms to live in), or the predominance of certain species (e.g. the predominance of the multi-mammate mouse is an indication that some form of disturbance has taken place).
  • Healthy and diverse carnivore populations (this also includes smaller predators such as shrews) usually indicate that the diversity of prey species is intact.
  • Healthy specialist or top-predator populations indicate that links lower down in their food chain are intact.
  • A large variety of rodent species and a high specialist:generalist ratio indicate that the predator guild is complete.


It is, however, the combination of the above that sketches the full picture of the integrity of the ecosystem. The better the integrity, the more resilient and resistant (stable) the ecosystem – which, in itself, may ensure higher, sustainable primary productivity and thereby directly influence the stocking rates of farms, game farms and nature reserves.

Small mammals have diverse morphological adaptations to their environments. The relatively flat head of the dormouse enables it to enter even the narrowest of cracks, whilst the long, prehensile tail of the climbing mouse allows it to sit high on a grass stalk, freeing its “hands” to obtain seeds. Other small mammals use their long tails for balance when moving through treetops. The bipedal gerbil and the springhare of open areas rely on their relatively long legs to carry out fast hopping movements when escaping from predators. The long snout of the elephant shrew and the large ears of the bat-eared fox help them to locate prey, whilst the large ears of the large-eared mouse help it to evade predators. The long vibrissae and bristle-like hairs on the fore and hind feet of the common molerat may serve as feelers in their dark burrows. Does the African weasel use its striped pattern to “mimic” the appearance of the smelly polecat, or is it simply an effective camouflage similar to that used by the diurnal striped mouse, some skinks and grass snakes? What about its short legs? Do they allow this predator to effectively follow rats and mice into their burrows?

Did you know that one adult multi-mammate mouse (and her daughters) may potentially produce > 1 000 offspring in a 9-month breeding season, compared to the approximately 200 offspring of most other species? This mouse has 12 pairs of mammae and can raise more than 20 young at a time, compared to an average of six young in the similar-sized striped mouse. It also has a shorter gestation period and has its first litter at a younger age; as a result, this species is able to quickly recolonise an area after natural or anthropogenic disturbances, temporarily dominating the small mammal fauna.

Furthermore, did you know that the total weight of mice in a 1 ha area of grassland may amount to 5 kg (compared to the approximately 50 kg/ha of large stock); taking into account their relatively high metabolism, mice may be responsible for > 15% of the vegetation consumed by all mammals. Luckily (for us) mouse numbers drop dramatically (probably up to 60%) between the end of autumn and the end of winter. This drop is mainly caused by a shortage of food and social stress. Population numbers start to increase again with the appearance of new shoots after winter and reach peak densities at the end of autumn.

Traditional healers, for example, believe that if one buries a shrew near someone’s house, that person will be cursed. It is also believed that if you sprinkle the powder of a fruit bat over a jealous wife’s food, she will develop tunnel vision (or will be cured of her problem!).

Otomys sloggetti, the “ice rat”, is endemic to the high Maluti and Drakensberg mountains and is well adapted to the very cold conditions experienced in those open environments. Physically its relatively round body shape, short limbs and tail maximize the retention of heat. Like the other Otomys rats the body is covered in a thick blanket of hair and behaviourally it is strictly diurnal – its sun basking behaviour has led to its Sesotho name “Tadi ya maqwa” (≈ “the little old man of the snow”).

The Greater canerat, Thryonomys swinderianus, is bred and sold as a valuable protein source over its entire distribution area in Africa. It is also known as an agricultural pest in the sugar cane plantations of KwaZulu-Natal. Since the mid 1980s this mammal has infiltrated the Free State Province from the east (first Museum record – 1985, Reitz district), and was recently found on a farm c. 20 km west of Bultfontein; a westward increase in distribution range of 300 km in 18 years! Of great concern is that we do not know anything about the density, reproduction, social behaviour, etc. of this exotic mammal in our Free State ecosystems.

News

Visitors from Italy

Visitors from Italy

11 January 2017
Dr Roberto Isotti, zoology lecturer at La Sapienza University (Rome), a conservation photographer and co-founder of Homo ambiens, an internet-based initiative showing the beauty of the natural environment and the state of the Planet (www.homoambiens.com), joined Nico Avenant in August for excursions in the Free State, central Karoo, Cederberg and West Coast National Park, in search of caracal. During their visit Roberto and his colleague, photo journalist Micol Ricci, presented a talk to more than 150 people in the Reservoir at Oliewenhuis Art Museum.


Storage facilities upgraded

Storage facilites upgraded

11 January 2017
The storage facilites housing mounted mammal and bird specimens not on display was recently upgraded. This off-site store room was previously subjected to dust and temperature fluctuations not conducive to long-term preservation. With the financial assistance of the National Research Foundation of South Africa the facility is now on par with international standards. It is dust-proof and climate-controlled, ensuring a constant temperature and humidity.


Popular talks

Popular talks
Ronny Nokha with a visitor from the Rendezvous Support Group, Free State Society for the Blind, during a visit to the Museum.

11 January 2017
Staff from the Mammalogy Department presented a number of talks, in combination with touch and sound experiences, for blind and visually impaired persons at the Presbyterian Church in Aliwal Street (in April), at the Museum (in September) and at the Free State Society for the Blind offices in Maitland Street (in October).


Ongoing field work in long-term research project

Ongoing field work

11 January 2017
Dr Nico Avenant is one of more than 60 scientists from eight French and 10 South African research institutions currently collaborating in the long-term project Biodiversity and global change in Southern Africa. This project has been running since 2005. Pictured here are Dr Guila Ganem from the University of Montpellier (France) and Leon Kotze (M.Sc. student, University of the Witwatersrand) doing fieldwork at Soetdoring Nature Reserve. They were assisted by staff of the Mammalogy Department.

Staff

Specialist Museum Scientist and Head of Department

Nico L. Avenant PhD navenant@nasmus.co.za

Nico AvenantNico Avenant is a small mammal ecologist with extensive field experience, working on a wide variety of rodents and their predators. When he joined the National Museum in 1995 he had published mainly from data accrued during collection trips and from his MSc study. Observations made during these trips, together with his introduction to environmental impact assessments (EIAs), led to Nico’s current research field, i.e. small mammal community characteristics as indicators of habitat integrity. His PhD study (on the ecology of the exotic Marion Island house mouse) added value to his studies on small mammal ecology. Nico slowly started to merge the fields of “small mammals as indicators” and “predator-prey relations”. To date Nico has contributed towards 48 peer-reviewed publications, 35 research based reports, 74 national and international conference contributions, and two chapters in books.

Nico is a National Research Foundation (NRF) rated scientist and a Research Associate of the Centre for Environmental Management (CEM) and at the Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of the Free State (UFS). He collaborates on national and international research projects, and lectures to and supervises both undergraduate and post-graduate students. He has conducted research over a wide area in Southern Africa, at the Prince Edward Islands, and in Cambodia.

Nico’s contribution towards reviewing research outputs has increased exponentially since January 2000. During this time he has acted as reviewer for 38 manuscripts (in 20 different accredited journals), 12 abstracts for conferences, three books, five species profiles for the Mammals of Africa (Kingdon et al. 2013); as scientific advisor for the Mammals of the Southern African Subregion (Skinner & Chimimba 2005); as contributor and compiler for the SA Red Data Book for Mammals (Friedmann & Daly 2004), and Guest Editor for the journals Integrative Zoology and Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein and is currently a Section Editor for African Zoology. More recently he has assessed applications for NRF evaluation and rating, for NRF funding, project proposals for the Earthwatch Institute and the Russell Small Grant, as well as proposals for the Centre for Environmental Management, UFS, the Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, UFS, the Department of Environmental Health, Central University of Technology (CUT), the Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (Universitéd’Abomey-Calavi, Benin), and the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland). He has also acted as an external examiner for 17post-graduate studies (from nine different universities), and as advisor for two Recognition of Prior Learning applications.

Nico’s other responsibilities at the National Museum include involvement in certain educational activities, and overseeing the collections and administration of the Mammalogy Department. The Department’s research collection and database comprise c. 13 000 mammal specimens and records. As curator of the collection he is primarily responsible for the systematic growth thereof, and for ensuring that it remains relevant and accessible for researchers internationally. His involvement in EIAs and participation in conservation initiatives represent contributions towards the conservation of species, biodiversity and ecosystems. Regarding involvement in education, Nico contributes actively to permanent and temporary Museum exhibitions, he presents both popular and academic lectures, provides information on mammals and ecosystems to individuals and groups, and supervises post-graduate students (12 post-graduate degrees awarded). The 25 popular publications, 17 newspaper articles, 58 popular talks and involvement with the “Big 5” computer game are further testimony to his commitment to research-based education at all levels.

Nico currently serves or has served on the following committees or forums: International Conference for Rodent Biology and Management; International Association for Impact Assessment, Free State Branch; Free State Conservation Forum; Free State Biodiversity Planning Steering Committee; Eskom's Multi-disciplinary Committee; the South African National Defence Force Regional Environmental Advisory Forum; various National Museum committees, e.g. Science Forum Committee (ex-chair), HOD Works Committee (ex-chair), Collections Audit Committee, Exhibitions Committee. He currently also serves on the Editorial Advisory Boards of Integrative Zoology and is a Section Editor for African Zoology. He is a member of the Zoological Society of Southern Africa, as well as the South African Institute of Ecologists and Environmental Scientists.


Museum Scientist and Collections Manager

Jurie J. du Plessis PhD jurie.duplessis@nasmus.co.za

JurieJurie obtained a BSc (Entomology & Zoology) at the University of the Free State (UFS), Bloemfontein and obtained his BSc Hons (Zoology) at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), Port Elizabeth. Returning to Bloemfontein in 2004, he completed an MEM (Masters in Environmental Management) at the Centre for Environmental Management (CEM), UFS, and graduated with a PhD (Environmental Management) in December 2013. Jurie worked as a Learner Professional Officer at the CEM from 2004 to 2008, after which he was appointed as Assistant Museum Scientist and Collection Manager in the Department of Mammalogy at the National Museum. He is currently a Museum Scientist and Collections Manager in the Department of Mammalogy.

Jurie’s areas of expertise lie in the sampling of small mammal communities, preparation and management of mammal specimens for Museum collections, ecology and management of predators, predator-prey relationships with emphasis on the livestock and game farming industry, biomonitoring of fish communities in rivers and ecology of fish communities in rivers.

He is a member of the South African Wildlife Management Association (SAWMA).


General Assistant / Preparator

Tshediso Putsane

Tshediso PutsaneTshediso Putsane started his career at the National Museum in March 2013, as a General Assistant / Preparator at the Department of Mammalogy. Tshediso’s main tasks include: assistance during fieldwork, preparation of study material for inclusion in the Mammalogy Department’s Research Collection, assistance with the curation of this collection and the day-to-day running of the department. Tshediso is also involved with some educational activities for visitors to the Mammalogy Department and for students at the University of the Free State. His fieldwork experience includes extensive sampling in Free State provincial nature reserves, on iron ore mine properties, and in Lesotho.


General Assistant / Preparator

Ronny Nokha

RonnyRonny Nokha started his career at the National Museum in April 2015, as Preparator at the Department of Mammalogy. Ronny’s main tasks include: assistance during fieldwork, preparation of study material for inclusion in the Mammalogy Department’s Research Collection, assistance with the curation of this collection and the day-to-day running of the department. He is also involved with educational activities for visitors to the Mammalogy Department and for students at the University of the Free State.

Research

Mammology-research

Fields of Research

  • Distribution/biogeography of small mammals in the central interior of South Africa and Lesotho
  • Distribution of small mammals in relation to floristic composition
  • Small mammal biodiversity
  • Distribution of small mammals in relation to the ecological value of grassveld
  • Monitoring small mammals effectively: a comparison of trapping methods
  • Small mammals as indicators of biological integrity
  • Addressing the caracal and black-backed jackal problem in small stock areas in southern Africa


General

  • The staff of the Department are actively involved with research and publish regularly in accredited and popular journals
  • The staff of the Department are involved with Environmental Assessments, which they do on a contract basis.
Publications - Scientific Articles

Morgan L. Hauptfleisch & Nico L. Avenant (In Press). Actual and perceived collision risk for bird strikes at Namibian airports. Ostrich.

J.J. de Klerk & N.L. Avenant (In Press). Small mammals succession in a rehabilitated area: support for their status as ecological indicators in southern Africa. Integrative Zoology.

Jacqueline Codron, Kevin J. Duffy, Nico L. Avenant, Matt Sponheimer, Jennifer Leichliter, Oliver Paine, Paul Sandberg and Daryl Codron (In press). Stable Isotope Evidence for Trophic Niche Partitioning in a South African Savanna Rodent Community. Current Zoology 61(3).

Du Plessis, J.J., Avenant, N.L. & De Waal, H.O. (In Press). Attributes of scientific information on black-backed jackal and caracal ecology: contributing to human-predator conflict management? African Journal of Wildlife Research.

Morgan L. Hauptfleisch & Nico L. Avenant (In Press). Integrating small mammal community variables into aircraft-wildlife collision management plans at Namibian airports. Integrative Zoology.

Claire M.S. Dufour, Christine Meynard, Johan Watson, Camille Rioux, Simon Benhamou, Julie Perez, Jurie J. du Plessis, Nico Avenant, Neville Pillay and Guila Ganem. 2015. Space use variation in co-occurring sister species: response to environmental variation or competition? PLOS ONE 10(2):1-15.

Avenant, N.L. 2014. Rodent Biology and Management. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein. 30(3): i-ii (Editorial).

William G. Breed, Chris M. Leigh, Ken P. Aplin, Adel A. Shahin & Nico L. Avenant. 2014. Morphological diversity and evolution of the spermatozoon in the mouse-relared clade of rodents. Journal of Morphology 275: 540–547.

C.M. Kneidinger, H. van Heerden, D. MacFadyen , M. van der Merwe, N.L. Avenant & H. van der Bank. 2014. Species identification, habitat preferences and population genetics of Mastomys natalensis (A. Smith, 1834) and M. coucha (A. Smith, 1836) in an enclosed area, Kruger National Park, South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 30(3): 31-45.

Gail C. Potgieter, Laurie L. Marker, Nico L. Avenant & Graham I. H. Kerley. 2013. Why Namibian farmers are satisfied with the performance of their livestock guarding dogs. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18(6): 403-415.

Morgan L. Hauptfleisch, Nico L. Avenant & Alton Tsowaseb. 2013. A first analysis of Aircraft-Wildlife Collisions at two major Namibian airports, by, South African Journal of Wildlife Research 43(2): 177–184.

Bergman, D.L., De Waal, H.O., Avenant, N.L., Bodenchuk, M.J., Marlow, M.C. & Nolte, D.L. 2013. The need to address black-backed jackal and caracal predation in South Africa. Proceedings of the 15th Wildlife Damage Management Conference (J. B. Armstrong, G. R. Gallagher, Eds). P. 86-94.

Avenant, N.L. 2013. Pelea capreolus. In: Kingdon, J.S. & Hoffmann, M. (Eds). The Mammals of Africa. Vol. 6. Pigs, Deer, Giraffe, Bovids, and Hippos. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

Avenant, N.L. 2013. Redunca fulvorufula. In: Kingdon, J.S. & Hoffmann, M. (Eds). The Mammals of Africa. Vol. 6. Pigs, Deer, Giraffe, Bovids, and Hippos. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

MacFadyen, D.N.,  Avenant, N.L., Van der Merwe, M. & Bredenkamp, G.J. 2012. The influence of fire on small mammal abundance at the N’washitshumbe enclosure site, Kruger National Park, South Africa. African Zoology 47:138-146.

Olbricht,G., Sliwa, A.  & Avenant, N.L. 2012. Sengi research in the Free State, South Africa.Afrotherian Conservation News 9: 7-8.

Avenant, N.L. 2011. The potential utility of rodents and other small mammals as indicators of ecosystem integrity of South African grasslands. Wildlife Research 38: 626-639.

Avenant, N.L. 2011. Recent progress in Rodent Biology and Management. Integrative Zoology 6:297-298 (Editorial).

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. & Avenant, N.L. 2011.The effect of fire on soil oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in a South African grassland. Zoosymposia 6:191–201.

Kaiser, W., Avenant, N.L. & Haddad, C.R. 2009. Assessing the ecological integrity of a grassland ecosystem: refining the SAGraSS method. Afr.J.Ecol. 47: 308–317.

Van der Merwe, S.J., Avenant, N.L. & Lues, J.F.R. 2009. Pastoral farming and wildlife management influences on lion/livestock interaction in the Kgalagadi-South, Botswana: a synopsis. Journal for New Generation Sciences 7(1): 203-214.

Avenant, N.L. & Du Plessis, J.J. 2008. Sustainable small stock farming and ecosystem conservation in southern Africa: a role for small mammals. Mammalia 72:258-263.

Avenant, N.L., Watson, J.P. & Schulze, E. 2008. Correlating small mammal community characteristics and habitat integrity in the Caledon Nature Reserve, South Africa. Mammalia 72:186-191.

Kaiser, W., Avenant, N.L. & Haddad, C.R. 2008. Assessing the ecological integrity of a grassland ecosystem: refining the SAGraSS method. Afr.J.Ecol. (Early online)

Herrmann, E., Kamler, J.F.& Avenant, N.L. 2008. New records of servals Leptailurus serval in central South Africa. S.Afr.J.Wildl.Res. 38:185-188.

Avenant, N.L. & Cavallini, P. 2007. Correlating rodent community structure with ecological integrity, Tussen-die-Riviere Nature Reserve, Free State Province, South Africa. Integrative Zoology 2:212-219.

Avenant, N.L. & Cavallini, P. 2006. Correlating rodent community structure with ecological integrity, Tussen-die-Riviere Nature Reserve, Free State Province, South Africa. Peer reviewed abstract published in book (= proceedings), International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management, Hanoi, Vietnam, September 2006.

Avenant, N.L. & De Waal, H.O. 2006. The potential importance of rodents in managing two problem carnivores, and subsequently in promoting ecosystem conservation and sustainable small stock farming practises in southern Africa. Peer reviewed abstract published in book (= proceedings), International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management, Hanoi, Vietnam, September 2006.

Kaiser, W.& Avenant, N.L. 2006. The importance if including rodents in veld condition assessments: a case study. Peer reviewed abstract published in book (= proceedings), International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management, Hanoi, Vietnam, September 2006.

Avenant, N.L. & Van der Merwe, M. 2006. Expansion of the greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, into the drier parts of Southern Africa. Peer reviewed abstract published in book (= proceedings), International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management, Hanoi, Vietnam, September 2006.

Avenant, N.L., De Waal, H.O. & Combrinck, W. 2006. The Canis-Caracal Programme: a holistic approach. Proceedings to the national Workshop on the holistic management of human-wildlife conflict in South Africa, 10 - 13 April 2006, Ganzekraal Conference Centre, Western Cape. Endangered Wildlife Trust, South Africa.

Avenant, N.L. 2005. Barn owl pellets: a useful tool for monitoring small mammal communities? Belgian Journal of Zoology 135:39-43.

Avenant, N.L. & Smith, V.R. 2004. Seasonal changes in age class structure and reproductive status of house mice on Marion Island (sub-Antarctic). Polar Biology 27:99-111

Van der Merwe, M. & Avenant, N.L. 2004. The Greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, is a pest species that is expanding its range in southern Africa. Navors.nas.Mus.,Bloemfontein 20: III-X.

Avenant, N.L. 2003. The use of small-mammal community characteristics as an indicator of ecological disturbance in the Korannaberg Conservancy. In: Rats, Mice & People: Rodent Biology and Management (eds. Singleton, G.R., Hinds, L.A., Krebs, C.J. & Spratt, D.M.). ACIAR Monograph No. 96, 564p.

Avenant, N.L. & Smith, V.R. 2003. The microenvironment of house mice on Marion Island (sub-Antarctic). Polar Biology 26:129-141.

Ferreira, S.M. & Avenant, N.L. 2003. Influences of trap-spacing on descriptors of hypothetical small mammal communities in Free State grasslands. Navors.nas.Mus., Bloemfontein 19:21-30.

Avenant, N.L. & Nel, J.A.J. 2002. Among habitat variation in prey availability and use by caracal Felis caracalMamm. Biol. 67:18-33.

Avenant, N.L. & Watson, J.P. 2002. Mammals recorded in the Sandveld Nature Reserve, Free State province, South Africa. Navors.nas.Mus., Bloemfontein 18(1):1-12.

Smith, V.R., Avenant, N.L. & Chown, S.L. 2002. Feeding ecology of Marion Island house mice. Polar Biology 25:703-715.

Avenant, N.L. & Kuyler, P. 2002. Small mammal diversity in the Maguga area, Swaziland. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 32:101-108.

Avenant, N.L. 2000. Small mammal community characteristics as indicators of ecological disturbance in the Willem Pretorius Nature Reserve, Free State, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 30(1):26-33.

Avenant, N.L. 2000. Terrestrial small-mammal diversity in Korannaberg Conservancy, Free State, South Africa. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 16(4):69-82.

Avenant, N.L. & Nel. J.A.J. 1998. Home range use, activity and density of caracal in relation to prey density. Afr. J. Ecol. 36:347-359.

Avenant, N.L. 1997. Mammals recorded in the QwaQwa National Park (1994-1995). Koedoe 40(1): 31-40.

Avenant, N.L. & Nel, J.A.J. 1997. Prey use by four syntopic carnivores in a strandveld ecosystem. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 27(3): 86-93.

Avenant, N.L. 1996. Identification and distribution of two Mastomys spp. in Lesotho and part of South Africa. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 12 (2): 49-58.

Lynch, C.D. 1994. The mammals of Lesotho. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 10(4): 177-241.

Du Toit, J.S., Fourie, L.J. & Horak, I.G. 1994. Sequential feeding of Ixodes rubicundus on its natural host, Elephantulus myurus: effects on tick mass and on engorgement and moulting success. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 61:143-147.

Du Toit, J.S., Fourie, L.J. & Horak, I.G. 1994. Detachment rhythms of immature Ixodes rubicundusfrom their natural host, the rock elephant shrew (Elephantulus myurus). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 61:149-153.

Du Toit, J.S. & Fourie, L.J. 1994. The effect of feeding immature Karoo paralysis ticks Ixodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the metabolic rate of the rock elephant shrew. Experimental & Applied Acarology 18(3): 167-175.

Du Toit, J.S. & Fourie, L.J. 1993. Bait preferences of rock elephant shrews. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 22:115-117.

Kok, D.J., Fourie, L.J. & Du Toit, J.S. 1992. The occurrence of the gall bladder trematode, Euparadistomum, in some lizards of the genera Cordylus and Pseudocordylus in South Africa. J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr. 40:50.

Lynch, C.D. & Watson, J.P. 1992. The distribution and ecology of Otomys sloggetti (Mammalia: Rodentia) with notes on its taxonomy. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 8(3): 141-158.

Lynch, C.D. 1991. Population dynamics in the lesser dwarf shrew, Suncus varilla (Mammalia: Soricidae). Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 7(9): 465-473.

Lynch, C.D. 1990. Reproduction in the lesser dwarf shrew, Suncus varilla (Mammalia: Soricidae). Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 7(3): 45-59.

Watson, J.P. 1990. The taxonomic status of the Slender mongoose. Galerella sanguinea (Rűppell, 1836) in Southern Africa. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 6(10):351-492.

Lynch, C.D. 1989. The mammals of the north-eastern Cape Province. Mem. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein25: 1-116.

Lynch, C.D. & Watson, J.P. 1989. The mammals of Sehlabathebe National Park, Lesotho. Report submitted to Natal Parks Board.

Lynch, C.D. & Watson, J.P. 1989. A mammal survey undertaken at Mateanong at the junction of the Mokhotlong and Senqubethu rivers, Lesotho. Report submitted to Natal Parks Board.

Lynch, C.D. 1988. Occurrence of Squamata in the termitaria in the Orange Free State, South Africa. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 34: 42-43.

Watson, J.P. & Dippenaar, N.J. 1987. The species limits of Galerella sanguine (Rüppell, 1836), G. pulverulenta (Wagner, 1839) and G. nigrata (Thomas, 1928) in Southern Africa (Carnivora: Viverridae). Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 5: 355-414.

Lynch, C.D. 1986. The ecology of the lesser dwarf shrew, Suncus varilla, with reference to the use of termite mounds of Trinervitermes trinervoidesNavors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 5: 277-297.

Lynch, C.D. 1985. Mammalian distribution patterns in the Orange Free State. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 4(16): 473-500.

Lynch, C.D. 1983. The mammals of the Orange Free State. Mem. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 18: 1-218.

Lynch, C.D. 1982. Die versameling van werweldiere. Praktikum 5: 1-23.

Lynch, C.D. 1982. Die preparering van soogdier- en voëlstudievelle en die skoonmaak van skedels en skelette. Praktikum 7: 1-27.

Lynch, C.D. 1981. The status of the Cape grey mongoose, Herpestes pulverulentus Wagner, 1839 (Mammalia: Viverridae). Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 4(5): 121-168.

Lynch, C.D. 1980. Ecology of the suricate, Suricata suricatta, and the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata, with special reference to their reproduction. Mem. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 14: 1-145.

Kok, O.B., Lynch, C.D. & Van Ee, C.A. 1979. Kommentaar m.b.t. die silwerjakkals. Bylae tot OVS Provinsiale Administrasie kommissie Verslag. 4pp.

Potgieter, T.D., Olivier, P.J.S., Prinsloo, H.F., Kok, O.B., Lynch, C.D., Van Ee, C.A., & Le Roux, P.J. 1979. Verslag van die kommissie van ondersoek na ongediertebestryding en rondloperhonde in die Oranje-Vrystaat. OVS Provinsiale Administrasie. 50pp.

Lynch, C.D. 1975. The distribution of mammals in the Orange Free State, South Africa. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 3(6): 109-139.

Lynch, C.D. 1974. A behavioural study of Blesbok, Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi, with special reference to territoriallity. Mem. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 8: 1-83.

Von Richter, W., Lynch, C.D. & Wessels, T. 1972. Status and distribution of the larger mammal species on farmland in the Orange Free State. Nat. Con. Res. Report 1. O.F.S. Prov. Admin.: 1-28.

Publications - Popular Articles

Du Plessis, J.J. 2014. Rooijakkals- en rooikat-bestuur en die rol van predatore in ‘n ekosisteem. Culna69.

Avenant, N.L. 2013. The bats of Lesotho. Culna 68.

Avenant, N.L. 2012. Rooikat en jakkalsprobleme: die rooies, die groenes, die blindes en die opportuniste. Culna 67.

Avenant, N.L. 2011. Muise, muise … net waar jy kyk. Culna 66.

Avenant, N.L & Von Kaschke, M. 2010. South African involvement in managing the new Mondulkiri Protected Forest, north-east Cambodia. Culna 65.

Avenant, N.L. 2009. The Mammals of Lesotho. Culna 64.

Avenant, N.L. 2008. ‘n Museum vir gestremdes. Culna 63.

Avenant, N.L. 2007. Rooikat & Rooijakkals: is daar hoop vir kleinveeboerdery in Suid-Afrika? Culna 62.

Brink, J. & Avenant, N. 2007. The mountain reedbuck and grey rhebok. ToGoTo 19:42-43.

Avenant, N.L. 2006. Kleinsoogdiertjies – aanwysers van ‘n gesonde ekosisteem. Culna 60.

Avenant, N.L. & Kaiser, W. 2006. The “other” mammals. Game Ranching in Central South Africa 1:52-56.

Avenant, N.L. 2006. Veldwerk te olifant in Kambodja. Culna 61.

Avenant, N.L. 2004. Knaagdiere as peste ... Culna 59.

Avenant, N.L. 2003. Kruising tussen ‘n erdvark en ‘n ystervark! Culna 58.

Avenant, N.L. 2002. Mohale-dam: omgewingsmonitering in die Maluti’s. Culna 57.

Williamson, P.A. 2002. Feromone – die stryd om lewe en dood by insekte. Culna 57.

Avenant, N.L. 2001. Vlermuise: ons mees gehate vriende? Culna 56.

Williamson, P.A. 2001. Hoe oorleef soogdiere in droogtetoestande? Culna 56.

Avenant, N.L. 2000. Korannaberg Bewarea: biodiversiteit-juweel van die Vrystaat. Culna 55.

Eksteen, J.P. 2000. Minder bekende soogdiere van die Vrystaat: Brantse fluitrot. Culna 55.

Avenant, N.L. 1999. Biodiversiteitskrisis en die Departement Soogdierkunde. Culna 54.

Eksteen, J.P. 1999. Minder bekende soogdiere van die Vrystaat: Die Dassierot, nog ‘n moontlike nuwe inwoner van die Vrystaat. Culna 54.

Avenant, N.L., Irish, J. & Lotz, L. 1998. Kogelbeengrot - 'n besondere natuurerfenis in die Noord-Kaap. Culna 53.

Eksteen, J.P. 1998. Minder bekende soogdiere van die Vrystaat: Die haarpootnagmuis. Culna 53.

Eksteen, J.P. 1997. Minder bekende soogdiere van die Vrystaat: Gouemolle. Culna 51.

Avenant, N.L. 1997. Die rooikat: gehaat of geliefd? Culna 51.

Eksteen, J.P. 1997. Minder bekende soogdiere van die Vrystaat: Witstertmuis - nuwe hoop vir 'n skaars muissoort. Culna 52.

Avenant, N.L. 1997. Die rooikat: Aktiwiteite en sosiale gedrag. Culna 52.

Eksteen, J.P. 1996. Skaars soogdiere van die Vrystaat: Smith se rooiklipkonyn. Culna 50.

Avenant, N.L. 1996. 'n Eerste vir Suid-Afrika? Culna 50.

Eksteen, J.P. 1995. Minder bekende soogdiere van die Vrystaat: Die gewone spleetneusvlermuis. Culna 49.

Avenant, N.L. & Van Staden, A. 1995. Dis nie sommer 'n wolhaar-storie nie! Culna 49.

Lynch, C.D. 1995. Cheetah in the Orange Free State. Culna 48.

Eksteen, J.P. 1995. Die Witstertmuishond. Culna 48.

Van Staden, A. & Avenant, N.L. 1995. Meganismes wat soogdiere gebruik om roofdiere te ontduik. Culna 48.

Lynch, C.D. 1994. Leopards in the Orange Free State and adjacent regions. Culna 47.

Eksteen, J.P. 1994. Muis met ekstra hand in sy stert. Culna 47.

Eksteen, J.P. 1994. Is daar nog Ietermago's in die Vrystaat? Culna 46.

Lynch, C.D. 1994. Servals in the Orange Free State and adjacent regions. Culna 46.

Eksteen, J.P. 1994. Breeding habits of the Blue Swallow in Southeastern Transvaal. Birding in S.A. 46 (3): 68.

Lynch, C.D. 1993. Giraffes in the Orange Free State. Culna 45.

Eksteen, J.P. 1993. Die Slangmuishond. Culna 45.

Lynch, C.D. 1993. Editorial: Curator Heridatis. Culna 44.

Eksteen, J.P. 1993. 'n Nuwe inwoner in die Vrystaat. Culna 44.

Eksteen, J.P. 1992. 'n Tropiese vlermuis in die Vrystaat. Culna 43.

Lynch, C.D. 1992. Museums, biodiversity & conservation. Culna 43.

Lynch, C.D. 1992. The Ice Rat. Culna 42.

Lynch, C.D. 1991. Rhinoceros in the OFS. Culna 41.

Lynch, C.D. 1991. Elephant in the OFS. Culna 40.

Lynch, C.D. 1990. Hippopotamus in the OFS. Culna 39.

Lynch, C.D. 1990. The mammals of the N.E. Cape. Culna 38.

Lynch, C.D. 1989. The mountain Kingdom of Lesotho mammal survey. National Museum News 37.

Lynch, C.D. 1989. Editorial. National Museum News 36.

Lynch, C.D. 1989. Gemsbok/roan: a new species record for the Orange Free State. National Museum News 36.

Watson, J.P. 1989. Klein mensies - hoekom lyk hulle so? National Museum News 36.

Lynch, C.D. 1988. Lion: a historic account. National Museum News 35.

Lynch, C.D. 1988. Wild dog in the Orange Free State. National Museum News 34.

Lynch, C.D. 1987. Mangaung - Place of the great cats. National Museum News 33.

Lynch, C.D. 1987. The White-tailed mouse - vulnerable, but so what! National Museum News 32.

Lynch, C.D. 1986. Termite mounds: a microcosm. National Museum News 31.

Lynch, C.D. 1986. A rare find: The Variable Quill-snouted snake. National Museum News 30.

Watson, J.P. 1986. The Klein gekolde kat. National Museum News 30.

Lynch, C.D. 1985. The once-in-a-lifetime return of Halley's comet. National Museum News 29.

Lynch, C.D. 1985. The lesser (known) dwarf shrew. National Museum News 29.

Watson, J.P. 1985. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Krimpvarkie. National Museum News 29.

Lynch, C.D. 1985. Clowns of the veld. National Museum News 28.

Watson, J.P. 1985. Prikkelpop se doen en late. National Museum News 28.

Lynch, C.D. 1985. The large-spotted genet. National Museum News 27.

Watson, J.P. 1984. Vlermuise van die OVS. National Museum News 26.

Lynch, C.D. 1983. Flying Mammals. National Museum News 25.

Lynch, C.D. 1983. The rock elephant shrew. National Museum News 24.

Lynch, C.D. 1981. The termite-eaters. National Museum News 23.

Lynch, C.D. 1981. Alert eyes, ears and noses. National Museum News 22.

Lynch, C.D. 1981. The Cape grey mongoose. National Museum News 21.

Lynch, C.D. 1980. The origin of some scientific and vernacular mammalian names. National Museum News 19.

Lynch, C.D. 1979. The genets and mongooses of the O.F.S. National Museum News 17.

Lynch, C.D. 1979. How many specimens end up in the dustbin? SAMA Biology Newsletter 2.

Lynch, C.D. 1978. Biological research - a waste of time and money. National Museum News14.

Lynch, C.D. 1977. To catch a meercat. National Museum News 13.

Lynch, C.D. 1976. The extinct "Quagga" and zebras. National Museum News 11.

Lynch, C.D. 1976. "Jackals" of the O.F.S. National Museum News 10.

Lynch, C.D. 1975. The pangolin or ietermago. National Museum News 9.

Lynch, C.D. 1974. Shrews. National Museum News 6.

Lynch, C.D. 1972. Characteristics of mammals. National Museum News 2.

Lynch, C.D. 1971. One of the rarest mammals. National Museum News 1.

Publications - Scientific Reports

Morgan L. Hauptfleisch & Nico L. Avenant (In Press). Actual and perceived collision risk for bird strikes at Namibian airports. Ostrich.

J.J. de Klerk & N.L. Avenant (In Press). Small mammals succession in a rehabilitated area: support for their status as ecological indicators in southern Africa. Integrative Zoology.

Jacqueline Codron, Kevin J. Duffy, Nico L. Avenant, Matt Sponheimer, Jennifer Leichliter, Oliver Paine, Paul Sandberg and Daryl Codron (In press). Stable Isotope Evidence for Trophic Niche Partitioning in a South African Savanna Rodent Community. Current Zoology 61(3).

Du Plessis, J.J., Avenant, N.L. & De Waal, H.O. (In Press). Attributes of scientific information on black-backed jackal and caracal ecology: contributing to human-predator conflict management? African Journal of Wildlife Research.

Morgan L. Hauptfleisch & Nico L. Avenant (In Press). Integrating small mammal community variables into aircraft-wildlife collision management plans at Namibian airports. Integrative Zoology.

Claire M.S. Dufour, Christine Meynard, Johan Watson, Camille Rioux, Simon Benhamou, Julie Perez, Jurie J. du Plessis, Nico Avenant, Neville Pillay and Guila Ganem. 2015. Space use variation in co-occurring sister species: response to environmental variation or competition? PLOS ONE 10(2):1-15.

Avenant, N.L. 2014. Rodent Biology and Management. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein. 30(3): i-ii (Editorial).

William G. Breed, Chris M. Leigh, Ken P. Aplin, Adel A. Shahin & Nico L. Avenant. 2014. Morphological diversity and evolution of the spermatozoon in the mouse-relared clade of rodents. Journal of Morphology 275: 540–547.

C.M. Kneidinger, H. van Heerden, D. MacFadyen , M. van der Merwe, N.L. Avenant & H. van der Bank. 2014. Species identification, habitat preferences and population genetics of Mastomys natalensis (A. Smith, 1834) and M. coucha (A. Smith, 1836) in an enclosed area, Kruger National Park, South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 30(3): 31-45.

Gail C. Potgieter, Laurie L. Marker, Nico L. Avenant & Graham I. H. Kerley. 2013. Why Namibian farmers are satisfied with the performance of their livestock guarding dogs. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18(6): 403-415.

Morgan L. Hauptfleisch, Nico L. Avenant & Alton Tsowaseb. 2013. A first analysis of Aircraft-Wildlife Collisions at two major Namibian airports, by, South African Journal of Wildlife Research 43(2): 177–184.

Bergman, D.L., De Waal, H.O., Avenant, N.L., Bodenchuk, M.J., Marlow, M.C. & Nolte, D.L. 2013. The need to address black-backed jackal and caracal predation in South Africa. Proceedings of the 15th Wildlife Damage Management Conference (J. B. Armstrong, G. R. Gallagher, Eds). P. 86-94.

Avenant, N.L. 2013. Pelea capreolus. In: Kingdon, J.S. & Hoffmann, M. (Eds). The Mammals of Africa. Vol. 6. Pigs, Deer, Giraffe, Bovids, and Hippos. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

Avenant, N.L. 2013. Redunca fulvorufula. In: Kingdon, J.S. & Hoffmann, M. (Eds). The Mammals of Africa. Vol. 6. Pigs, Deer, Giraffe, Bovids, and Hippos. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

MacFadyen, D.N.,  Avenant, N.L., Van der Merwe, M. & Bredenkamp, G.J. 2012. The influence of fire on small mammal abundance at the N’washitshumbe enclosure site, Kruger National Park, South Africa. African Zoology 47:138-146.

Olbricht,G., Sliwa, A.  & Avenant, N.L. 2012. Sengi research in the Free State, South Africa.Afrotherian Conservation News 9: 7-8.

Avenant, N.L. 2011. The potential utility of rodents and other small mammals as indicators of ecosystem integrity of South African grasslands. Wildlife Research 38: 626-639.

Avenant, N.L. 2011. Recent progress in Rodent Biology and Management. Integrative Zoology 6:297-298 (Editorial).

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. & Avenant, N.L. 2011.The effect of fire on soil oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in a South African grassland. Zoosymposia 6:191–201.

Kaiser, W., Avenant, N.L. & Haddad, C.R. 2009. Assessing the ecological integrity of a grassland ecosystem: refining the SAGraSS method. Afr.J.Ecol. 47: 308–317.

Van der Merwe, S.J., Avenant, N.L. & Lues, J.F.R. 2009. Pastoral farming and wildlife management influences on lion/livestock interaction in the Kgalagadi-South, Botswana: a synopsis. Journal for New Generation Sciences 7(1): 203-214.

Avenant, N.L. & Du Plessis, J.J. 2008. Sustainable small stock farming and ecosystem conservation in southern Africa: a role for small mammals. Mammalia 72:258-263.

Avenant, N.L., Watson, J.P. & Schulze, E. 2008. Correlating small mammal community characteristics and habitat integrity in the Caledon Nature Reserve, South Africa. Mammalia 72:186-191.

Kaiser, W., Avenant, N.L. & Haddad, C.R. 2008. Assessing the ecological integrity of a grassland ecosystem: refining the SAGraSS method. Afr.J.Ecol. (Early online)

Herrmann, E., Kamler, J.F.& Avenant, N.L. 2008. New records of servals Leptailurus serval in central South Africa. S.Afr.J.Wildl.Res. 38:185-188.

Avenant, N.L. & Cavallini, P. 2007. Correlating rodent community structure with ecological integrity, Tussen-die-Riviere Nature Reserve, Free State Province, South Africa. Integrative Zoology 2:212-219.

Avenant, N.L. & Cavallini, P. 2006. Correlating rodent community structure with ecological integrity, Tussen-die-Riviere Nature Reserve, Free State Province, South Africa. Peer reviewed abstract published in book (= proceedings), International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management, Hanoi, Vietnam, September 2006.

Avenant, N.L. & De Waal, H.O. 2006. The potential importance of rodents in managing two problem carnivores, and subsequently in promoting ecosystem conservation and sustainable small stock farming practises in southern Africa. Peer reviewed abstract published in book (= proceedings), International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management, Hanoi, Vietnam, September 2006.

Kaiser, W.& Avenant, N.L. 2006. The importance if including rodents in veld condition assessments: a case study. Peer reviewed abstract published in book (= proceedings), International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management, Hanoi, Vietnam, September 2006.

Avenant, N.L. & Van der Merwe, M. 2006. Expansion of the greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, into the drier parts of Southern Africa. Peer reviewed abstract published in book (= proceedings), International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management, Hanoi, Vietnam, September 2006.

Avenant, N.L., De Waal, H.O. & Combrinck, W. 2006. The Canis-Caracal Programme: a holistic approach. Proceedings to the national Workshop on the holistic management of human-wildlife conflict in South Africa, 10 - 13 April 2006, Ganzekraal Conference Centre, Western Cape. Endangered Wildlife Trust, South Africa.

Avenant, N.L. 2005. Barn owl pellets: a useful tool for monitoring small mammal communities? Belgian Journal of Zoology 135:39-43.

Avenant, N.L. & Smith, V.R. 2004. Seasonal changes in age class structure and reproductive status of house mice on Marion Island (sub-Antarctic). Polar Biology 27:99-111

Van der Merwe, M. & Avenant, N.L. 2004. The Greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, is a pest species that is expanding its range in southern Africa. Navors.nas.Mus.,Bloemfontein 20: III-X.

Avenant, N.L. 2003. The use of small-mammal community characteristics as an indicator of ecological disturbance in the Korannaberg Conservancy. In: Rats, Mice & People: Rodent Biology and Management (eds. Singleton, G.R., Hinds, L.A., Krebs, C.J. & Spratt, D.M.). ACIAR Monograph No. 96, 564p.

Avenant, N.L. & Smith, V.R. 2003. The microenvironment of house mice on Marion Island (sub-Antarctic). Polar Biology 26:129-141.

Ferreira, S.M. & Avenant, N.L. 2003. Influences of trap-spacing on descriptors of hypothetical small mammal communities in Free State grasslands. Navors.nas.Mus., Bloemfontein 19:21-30.

Avenant, N.L. & Nel, J.A.J. 2002. Among habitat variation in prey availability and use by caracal Felis caracalMamm. Biol. 67:18-33.

Avenant, N.L. & Watson, J.P. 2002. Mammals recorded in the Sandveld Nature Reserve, Free State province, South Africa. Navors.nas.Mus., Bloemfontein 18(1):1-12.

Smith, V.R., Avenant, N.L. & Chown, S.L. 2002. Feeding ecology of Marion Island house mice. Polar Biology 25:703-715.

Avenant, N.L. & Kuyler, P. 2002. Small mammal diversity in the Maguga area, Swaziland. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 32:101-108.

Avenant, N.L. 2000. Small mammal community characteristics as indicators of ecological disturbance in the Willem Pretorius Nature Reserve, Free State, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 30(1):26-33.

Avenant, N.L. 2000. Terrestrial small-mammal diversity in Korannaberg Conservancy, Free State, South Africa. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 16(4):69-82.

Avenant, N.L. & Nel. J.A.J. 1998. Home range use, activity and density of caracal in relation to prey density. Afr. J. Ecol. 36:347-359.

Avenant, N.L. 1997. Mammals recorded in the QwaQwa National Park (1994-1995). Koedoe 40(1): 31-40.

Avenant, N.L. & Nel, J.A.J. 1997. Prey use by four syntopic carnivores in a strandveld ecosystem. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 27(3): 86-93.

Avenant, N.L. 1996. Identification and distribution of two Mastomys spp. in Lesotho and part of South Africa. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 12 (2): 49-58.

Lynch, C.D. 1994. The mammals of Lesotho. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 10(4): 177-241.

Du Toit, J.S., Fourie, L.J. & Horak, I.G. 1994. Sequential feeding of Ixodes rubicundus on its natural host, Elephantulus myurus: effects on tick mass and on engorgement and moulting success. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 61:143-147.

Du Toit, J.S., Fourie, L.J. & Horak, I.G. 1994. Detachment rhythms of immature Ixodes rubicundusfrom their natural host, the rock elephant shrew (Elephantulus myurus). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 61:149-153.

Du Toit, J.S. & Fourie, L.J. 1994. The effect of feeding immature Karoo paralysis ticks Ixodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the metabolic rate of the rock elephant shrew. Experimental & Applied Acarology 18(3): 167-175.

Du Toit, J.S. & Fourie, L.J. 1993. Bait preferences of rock elephant shrews. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 22:115-117.

Kok, D.J., Fourie, L.J. & Du Toit, J.S. 1992. The occurrence of the gall bladder trematode, Euparadistomum, in some lizards of the genera Cordylus and Pseudocordylus in South Africa. J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr. 40:50.

Lynch, C.D. & Watson, J.P. 1992. The distribution and ecology of Otomys sloggetti (Mammalia: Rodentia) with notes on its taxonomy. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 8(3): 141-158.

Lynch, C.D. 1991. Population dynamics in the lesser dwarf shrew, Suncus varilla (Mammalia: Soricidae). Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 7(9): 465-473.

Lynch, C.D. 1990. Reproduction in the lesser dwarf shrew, Suncus varilla (Mammalia: Soricidae). Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 7(3): 45-59.

Watson, J.P. 1990. The taxonomic status of the Slender mongoose. Galerella sanguinea (Rűppell, 1836) in Southern Africa. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 6(10):351-492.

Lynch, C.D. 1989. The mammals of the north-eastern Cape Province. Mem. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein25: 1-116.

Lynch, C.D. & Watson, J.P. 1989. The mammals of Sehlabathebe National Park, Lesotho. Report submitted to Natal Parks Board.

Lynch, C.D. & Watson, J.P. 1989. A mammal survey undertaken at Mateanong at the junction of the Mokhotlong and Senqubethu rivers, Lesotho. Report submitted to Natal Parks Board.

Lynch, C.D. 1988. Occurrence of Squamata in the termitaria in the Orange Free State, South Africa. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 34: 42-43.

Watson, J.P. & Dippenaar, N.J. 1987. The species limits of Galerella sanguine (Rüppell, 1836), G. pulverulenta (Wagner, 1839) and G. nigrata (Thomas, 1928) in Southern Africa (Carnivora: Viverridae). Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 5: 355-414.

Lynch, C.D. 1986. The ecology of the lesser dwarf shrew, Suncus varilla, with reference to the use of termite mounds of Trinervitermes trinervoidesNavors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 5: 277-297.

Lynch, C.D. 1985. Mammalian distribution patterns in the Orange Free State. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 4(16): 473-500.

Lynch, C.D. 1983. The mammals of the Orange Free State. Mem. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 18: 1-218.

Lynch, C.D. 1982. Die versameling van werweldiere. Praktikum 5: 1-23.

Lynch, C.D. 1982. Die preparering van soogdier- en voëlstudievelle en die skoonmaak van skedels en skelette. Praktikum 7: 1-27.

Lynch, C.D. 1981. The status of the Cape grey mongoose, Herpestes pulverulentus Wagner, 1839 (Mammalia: Viverridae). Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 4(5): 121-168.

Lynch, C.D. 1980. Ecology of the suricate, Suricata suricatta, and the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata, with special reference to their reproduction. Mem. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 14: 1-145.

Kok, O.B., Lynch, C.D. & Van Ee, C.A. 1979. Kommentaar m.b.t. die silwerjakkals. Bylae tot OVS Provinsiale Administrasie kommissie Verslag. 4pp.

Potgieter, T.D., Olivier, P.J.S., Prinsloo, H.F., Kok, O.B., Lynch, C.D., Van Ee, C.A., & Le Roux, P.J. 1979. Verslag van die kommissie van ondersoek na ongediertebestryding en rondloperhonde in die Oranje-Vrystaat. OVS Provinsiale Administrasie. 50pp.

Lynch, C.D. 1975. The distribution of mammals in the Orange Free State, South Africa. Navors. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 3(6): 109-139.

Lynch, C.D. 1974. A behavioural study of Blesbok, Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi, with special reference to territoriallity. Mem. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 8: 1-83.

Von Richter, W., Lynch, C.D. & Wessels, T. 1972. Status and distribution of the larger mammal species on farmland in the Orange Free State. Nat. Con. Res. Report 1. O.F.S. Prov. Admin.: 1-28.

Publications - Mammal Checklists

QwaQwa National Park, Free State

Willem Pretorius Nature Reserve, Free State

Sandveld Nature Reserve, Free State

Korannaberg Conservancy, Free State

Kogelbeen Caves, Griekwastad, Northern Cape

Collections

The collection currently totals approximately 12 800 specimens of many different species, which can be loaned by research institutions (see loan policy). The collection contains the following material:

  • Study skins
  • Skulls
  • Complete skeletons
  • Baculums
  • Embryos
  • Wet collection


Species represented in the collection:

  • Order Afrosoricida
    Family CHRYSOCHLORIDAE Gray, 1825Amblysomus hottentotus (A. Smith, 1829)
     Chlorotalpa sclateri (Broom, 1907)
  • Order Carnivora
    Family HYAENIDAE Gray, 1821Parahyaena brunnea (Thunberg, 1820)
     Proteles cristatus (Sparrman, 1783)
    Family FELIDAE G. Fischer, 1817Acinonyx jubatus (Schreber, 1775)
     Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776)
     Felis nigripes Burchell, 1824
     Felis silvestris Forster, 1780
     Leptailurus serval (Schreber, 1776)
     Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758)
     Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758)
    Family VIVERRIDAE Gray, 1821Civettictis civetta (Schreber, 1776)
     Genetta genetta Linnaeus, 1758
     Genetta tigrina (Schreber, 1776)
    Family HERPESTIDAE Bonaparte, 1845Atilax paludinosus (G. Cuvier, 1829)
     Cynictis penicillata (G. Cuvier, 1829)
     Galerella pulverulenta (Wagner, 1839)
     Galerella sanguinea (Rüppell, 1836)
     Ichneumia albicauda (G. Cuvier, 1829)
     Suricata suricatta (Schreber, 1776)
    Family CANIDAE G. Fischer, 1817Canis mesomelas Schreber, 1775
     Lycaon pictus (Temminck, 1820)
     Otocyon megalotis (Desmarest, 1822)
     Vulpes chama (A. Smith, 1833)
    Family MUSTELIDAE G. Fischer, 1817Aonyx capensis (Schinz, 1821)
     Ictonyx striatus (Perry, 1810)
     Poecilogale albinucha (Gray, 1864)
  • Order Chiroptera
    Family PTEROPODIDAE Gray, 1821Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792)
     Epomophorus wahlbergi (Sundevall, 1846)
    Family MOLOSSIDAE Gervais, 1856Tadarida aegyptiaca (E. Geoffroy, 1818)
    Family VESPERTILIONIDAE Gray, 1821Cistugo lesueuri (Roberts, 1919)
     Eptesicus hottentotus (A. Smith, 1833)
     Laephotis wintoni Setzer, 1971
     Miniopterus schreibersii (Kuhl, 1817)
     Myotis tricolor (Temminck, 1832)
     Myotis welwitschii (Gray, 1866)
     Neoromicia capensis (A. Smith, 1829)
     Pipistrellus kuhlii (Kuhl, 1817)
     Scotophilus dinganii (A. Smith, 1833)
    Family NYCTERIDAE Van der Hoeven, 1855Nycteris thebaica E. Geoffroy, 1813
    Family RHINOLOPHIDAE Gray, 1825Rhinolophus clivosus Cretzschmar, 1828
     Rhinolophus darlingi K. Anderson, 1905
     Rhinolophus denti Thomas, 1904
  • Order Eulipotyphla
    Family SORICIDAE G. Fischer, 1817Crocidura cyanea (Duvernoy, 1838)
     Crocidura flavescens (I. Geoffroy, 1827)
     Crocidura fuscomurina (Heuglin, 1865)
     Crocidura hirta Peters, 1852
     Crocidura mariquensis (A. Smith, 1844)
     Myosorex varius (Smuts, 1832)
     Suncus infinitesimus (Heller, 1912)
     Suncus varilla (Thomas, 1895)
    Family ERINACEIDAE G. Fischer, 1817Atelerix frontalis A. Smith, 1831
  • Order Hyracoidea
    Family PROCAVIIDAE Thomas, 1892Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766)
  • Order Lagomorpha
    Family LEPORIDAE G. Fischer, 1817Lepus capensis Linnaeus, 1758
     Lepus saxatilis F. Cuvier, 1823
     Pronolagus rupestris (A. Smith, 1834)
  • Order Macroscelidea
    Family MACROSCELIDIDAE Bonaparte, 1838Elephantulus myurus Thomas & Schwann, 1906
     Elephantulus rupestris (A. Smith, 1831)
  • Order Perissodactyla
    Family RHINOCEROTIDAE Gray, 1821Ceratotherium simum (Burchell, 1817)
     Diceros bicornis (Linnaeus, 1758)
    Family EQUIDAE Gray, 1821Equus quagga (Gray, 1824)
  • Order Pholidota
    Family MANIDAE Gray, 1821Manis temminckii Smuts, 1832
  • Order Primates
    Family CERCOPITHECIDAE Gray, 1821Cercopithecus pygerythrus (F. Cuvier, 1821)
     Papio hamadryas (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Order Proboscidea
    Family ELEPHANTIDAE Gray, 1821Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach, 1797)
  • Order Rodentia
    Family BATHYERGIDAE Waterhouse, 1841Cryptomys hottentotus (Lesson, 1826)
    Family HYSTRICIDAE G. Fischer, 1817Hystrix africaeaustralis Peters, 1852
    Family THRYONOMYIDAE Pocock, 1922Thryonomys swinderianus (Temminck, 1827)
    Family PEDETIDAE Gray, 1825Pedetes capensis (Forster, 1778)
    Family SCIURIDAE Hemprich, 1820Xerus inauris (Zimmermann, 1780)
    Family MYOXIDAE Gray 1821Graphiurus murinus (Desmarest, 1822)
     Graphiurus ocularis (A. Smith, 1829)
    Family MURIDAE Illiger, 1815Acomys spinosissimus (Peters, 1852)
     Acomys subspinosus (Waterhouse, 1838)
     Dendromus melanotis A. Smith, 1834
     Dendromus mesomelas (Brants, 1827)
     Dendromus mystacalis Heuglin, 1863
     Desmodillus auricularis (A. Smith, 1834)
     Gerbillurus paeba (A. Smith, 1836)
     Grammomys dolichurus (Smuts, 1832)
     Lemniscomys rosalia (Thomas, 1904)
     Malacothrix typica (A. Smith, 1834)
     Mastomys coucha (A. Smith, 1836)
     Mastomys natalensis (A. Smith, 1834)
     Micaelamys namaquensis (A. Smith, 1834)
     Mus indutus (Thomas, 1910)
     Mus minutoides A. Smith, 1834
     Mus orangiae (Roberts, 1926)
     Mystromys albicaudatus (A. Smith, 1834)
     Otomys irroratus (Brants, 1827)
     Otomys saundersiae Roberts, 1929
     Otomys sloggetti Thomas, 1902
     Otomys unisulcatus F. Cuvier, 1829
     Rhabdomys pumilio (Sparrmann, 1784)
     Saccostomus campestris Peters, 1846
     Tatera brantsii (A. Smith, 1836)
     Tatera leucogaster (Peters, 1852)
  • Order Ruminantia
    Family BOVIDAE Gray, 1821Aepyceros melampus (Lichtenstein, 1812)
     Alcelaphus buselaphus (Pallas, 1766)
     Antidorcas marsupialis (Zimmermann, 1780)
     Connochaetes gnou (Zimmerman, 1780)
     Connochaetes taurinus (Burchell, 1823)
     Damaliscus lunatus (Burchell, 1823)
     Damaliscus pygargus (Pallas, 1767)
     Hippotragus equinus (Desmarest, 1804)
     Hippotragus niger (Harris, 1838)
     Oreotragus oreotragus (Zimmermann, 1783)
     Oryx gazella (Linnaeus, 1758)
     Pelea capreolus (Forster, 1790)
     Raphicerus campestris (Thunberg, 1811)
     Redunca arundinum (Boddaert, 1785)
     Redunca fulvorufula (Afzelius, 1815)
     Sylvicapra grimmia (Linnaeus, 1758)
     Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779)
     Tragelaphus oryx (Pallas, 1766)
     Tragelaphus scriptus (Pallas, 1766)
     Tragelaphus strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766)
  • Order Suiformes
    Family SUIDAE Gray, 1821Phacochoerus africanus (Gmelin, 1788)
  • Order Tubulidentata
    Family ORYCTEROPODIDAE Gray, 1821Orycteropus afer (Pallas, 1766)
Collaboration

Mammology-collaboration

Research staff collaborate locally with the following:

  • University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 
  • Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein 
  • University of the Witwatersrand
  • University of Stellenbosch
  • Free State Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Bloemfontein 
  • Education and Design Departments of the National Museum

 

International collaboration includes working with the:

  • Zoologischer Garten Köln, Köln, Germany (Dr. A. Sliwa)
  • University of Montpellier, France (Dr. G. Ganem)
  • University of Colorado at Boulder, USA (Prof. M. Sponheimer)
  • National Museum Natural History, Prague, Czech Republic (Dr. P. Benda)
  • University of Arkansas, USA (Prof. P. Ungar)
Services Offered
  • Environmental Assessments
  • Post-graduate supervision
  • Lecturing and Practicals (tertiary level)
  • Field schools and popular scientific lectures
Loan Policy

Internationally accepted museum loan protocol is followed. Material will be loaned to the Director, Head of Department or permanent senior scientist of a reputable scientific institution only, and not to private individuals.

For further information, contact the Head of Department: navenant@nasmus.co.za

© 2019 National Museum, Bloemfontein, South Africa – All Rights Reserved
Website development by Digital Platforms