Study of Prehistoric Cultures
The Department of Archaeology conducts research projects rooted in both the humanities and natural sciences. Specific research interests include issues related to the interpretation of past ecosystems, the history of early farming communities, as well as the archaeology of more recent colonial settlement in the central interior. The Department also consults on Cultural Resource Management, working with both government and the private sector to widen public awareness of the importance of the country’s heritage. The Department of Archaeology is home to major collections, including Stone Age artefacts from the Orange River areas of the Gariep and Van der Kloof dams, Iron Age collections from the Free State, as well as Later Stone Age cultural material from cave sites along the southern Cape coast. New material accessioned to the Collection includes material from South African War sites in and around Bloemfontein.
Musical instruments donated to Museum
12 January 2017
A number of old harmonicas and a Hohner accordion (1904) have been donated to the historical archaeology and cultural studies devision of the Archaeology Department. The Museum would like to receive more old harmonicas, accordions and consertinas, regardless of their condition, for research. Please contact Gerda Coetzee (051 447 9609 / email@example.com).
Archaeologist attends conference in France
11 January 2017
Dr Lloyd Rossouw, Head of the Archaeology Department, attended the 23rd biennial conference of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists in Toulouse, France, at the Université Jean Jaurès from 26 June to 2 July. He presented a paper on the palaeo-environmental application of fossil grass phytoliths from Early Stone Age occupation layers at Wonderwerk Cave in the Northern Cape Province.
27 June 2013
Gerda Coetzee presented several posters at the ASAPA (Association for South African Professional Archaeologists) Conference which took place at the Kamhlaba United World College, Mbabane, Swaziland from 1-2 July 2011. (Posters can be downloaded).
An introduction to Welkomskraal: A farming community in the Eastern Cape Province dating from the 1880s to the 1920s
The disposal of rubbish and the location of middens: A case study from the farm Welkomskraal in the Eastern Cape Province
Material culture studies: studying advertisements and events surrounding the traditional Holy Communion weekend: A case study from the farm Welkomskraal, Eastern Cape Province
Sudré Havenga & Gerda Coetzee
Unbuttoning the past: buttons found at Welkomskraal in the Eastern Cape
PDF 900 KB
Annie R. Antonites & Gerda Coetzee
The market economy of sheep farming in the 19th and 20th century Cape Colony: A case study form the Eastern Cape Province
Gerda Coetzee presented a poster at the National Conference of the South African Society for Cultural History which took place in George from 24-25 May 2013.
Gerda Coetzee & Sudré Havenga
Speelgoed en beeldjies gevind te Welkomskraal, distrik Venterstad, Noordoos-Kaap: ‘n Histories-Argeologiese studie
Gerda also gave an oral presention on the same topic at the conference.
Senior Museum Scientist and Head of Department
Lloyd Rossouw PhD firstname.lastname@example.org
Lloyd Rossouw obtained his BA degree, majoring in Archaeology and Cultural Anthropology, and went on to receive training in southern African archaeology at Honours level at the University of Stellenbosch Archaeology Department. He received specialized training in faunal osteology and Quaternary palaeontology for his MSc (cum laude) at the Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research (BPI) at the Univesity of the Witwatersrand. He also received instruction in human anatomy at Duke University Medical School in Durham, North Carolina, USA. For his PhD degree, obtained in 2009 at the University of the Free State, he developed an archaeobotanical method that can be applied to fossil grass phytoliths to estimate past environmental conditions. He is a member of the Association for South African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA) as well as a member of its Cultural Resource Management (CRM) section, with accreditation in the following areas of professional archaeological specialization: Principal Investigator, Specialist Analysis for archaeobotany and archaeozoology and Field Supervisor for Stone Age archaeology.
Loudine Philip M Phil email@example.com
Loudine Philip left a successful career in Human Resource Management in 1996 to pursue a career in a lifelong interest, archaeology. After obtaining her BA degree (cum laude), majoring in Archaeology and Biblical Archaeology, from the University of South Africa (UNISA), she enrolled as a full time student at the University of Pretoria and obtained her BHCS (Hons) degree (cum laude) specializing in Archaeology. Her new career started off at the University of Pretoria where she headed up the heritage section of the Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (CINDEK) whilst also lecturing at the Department of Archaeology. Through UNISA she has subsequently received additional training in Anthropology, Development Studies and African Politics which she felt imperative for a thorough understanding of the human landscape of the African continent.
In 2013 Loudine completed her M.Phil. at the University of Cape Town and graduated in June 2014. With this she expanded her field of knowledge within archaeology to include the built environment. Loudine’s current focus is on the last 500 years in the history of southern Africa which places it in both Late Iron Age and Historical Archaeology, researching this within the broader context of Landscape Archaeology. She is a member of the Association for South African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA) as well as a member of its Cultural Resource Management (CRM) section with Field Supervisor accreditation in Iron Age and Historical Archaeology.
Principal Conservator and Collections Manager
Gerda Coetzee MA firstname.lastname@example.org
Gerda Coetzee matriculated in 1990 at the Paul Kruger High School, Steynsburg, Eastern Cape. She obtained a BA degree through UNISA, majoring in Archaeology and Anthropology, and an Honours degree in Archaeology (cum laude) at the University of Pretoria. She joined the National Museum in September 2005 and since then underwent several courses and workshops in conservation such as metal conservation and ceramic conservation. She obtained a Masters degree in Historical Archaeology through UNISA in 2012. Gerda is a member of the Association for South African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA), as well as the Cultural Resource Management (CRM) section of ASAPA, with Field Supervisor status in Iron Age and Stone Age Archaeology and Field Director status in Colonial Period Archaeology.
Her thesis with the title ‘n Histories-Argeologiese studie van die plaas Welkomskraal, distrik Venterstad, Noordoos-Kaap is available for download at the UNISA Repository.
The thesis is very useful in the identification of archaeological material from colonial sites, especially for Heritage Impact Assessments (HIA).
Abstract: This historical archaeological study provides a baseline description of the material culture of a remote southern African farm occupied between the 1880s and the 1930s. The study is based on a detailed analysis of the excavated finds recovered from middens associated with three homesteads, located on the farm Welkomskraal, in the Venterstad district of the north-eastern Cape. Artefacts were identified using the reference collection of the National Museum in Bloemfontein and commercial adverts. The material culture covers the full spectrum of the daily lives of the farm’s occupants and is complemented by genealogical data, which indicate that the landowners were the descendants of the first trekboers who settled in the area. The occupation of Welkomskraal coincided with the second industrial revolution, which was characterised by mass production of goods and an increasingly global trade network. The assemblage attests that farmers in the deep interior had access to a wide range of imported goods although they were not necessarily prosperous.
Myra Gohodzi MSc email@example.com
Myra Mashimbye graduated with Archaeology and Physical Geography for her BA and continued her training in southern African archaeology to receive a BA Honours degree at the University of the Witwatersrand. She is currently enrolled at the same university for the degree of Master of Science in Archaeology. Myra was appointed as Research Assistant at the Museum in January 2010.
General AssistantThys Uys firstname.lastname@example.org
Thys Uys matriculated from Bultfontein High School, Free State Province. He is currently studying towards a BA in Historical Studies, specializing in Archaeology.
Gerda Coetzee is studying the material culture of an old farming community in the Venterstad district, Eastern Cape, while Myra Mashimbye’s research focus is on herding strategies in the Shashe-Limpopo region during the Iron Age. Lloyd Rossouw is working on the palaeoecology of several sites, including the Mio-Pliocene sediments from E Quarry at Langebaanweg, Western Cape Province, the Acheulean and Later Stone Age deposits at Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape Province, the spring deposits at Wonderkrater, Limpopo Province, and late Pleistocene fluvial deposits at Erfkroon along the Modder River, Free State.
Coetzee, G. & Havenga, S. 2013.Kinders en hulle speelgoed: ‘n histories-argeologiese studie van Welkomskraal, ‘n pioniersplaas in die distrik Venterstad. South African Journal of Cultural History 28(1):24-45.
Rossouw, L., Stynder, D.D. and Haarhof, P. 2009. Evidence for opal phytolith preservation in the Langebaanweg ‘E’ Quarry Varswater Formation and its potential for palaeohabitat reconstruction. South African Journal of Science 105: 223 – 227
Codron, D. Brink, J.S., Rossouw, L., Claus, M., Codron, J., Lee-Thorp, J. and Sponheimer, M. 2008. Functional differentiation of African grazing ruminants: an example of specialized adaptations to very small changes in diet. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94: 755–764
Codron, D., Brink, J.S. Rossouw, L. and Clauss, M. 2008. The evolution of ecological specialization in southern African ungulates: competition- or physical environmental turnover? Oikos 117(3): 344 – 353
Henderson, Z.L. 2008. Standards for curation of archaeological material: some thoughts on the issues. South African Archaeological Bulletin 63: 79-81
Backwell, L.R., Steininger, C.M, Brink, J., Neveling, J., Rossouw, L. & Pereira, L. 2007. Large mammal mass death accumulation in the Holocene of South Africa. PSSA, Grahamstown, South Africa. Palaeontologia Africana 42: 118
Brink, J.S., Grun, R., Rossouw, L. and Codron, D. 2007. Mid-Quaternary large mammal succession and extinction in southern Africa. Quaternary International 167 – 168 (3-486)
Rossouw, L and Scott, L. 2006. Ecological significance of South African short-cell phytoliths. 6th Biennial Meeting of the Society for Phytolith Research in Barcelona, Spain, September 2006. Society for Phytolith Research Bulletin 1(1): 14
Curnoe, D., Herries, A., Brink, J., Hopley, P., Van Ryneveld, K., Henderson, Z.L. & Morris, D. 2006. Discovery of Middle Pleistocene fossils and stone tool-bearing deposits at Groot Kloof, Ghaap escarpment, Northern Cape Province. South African Journal of Science 102: 180-184
Sealy, J., Ludwig, B. & Henderson, Z.L. 2006. New Radiocarbon Dates for Matjes River Rock Shelter. South African Archaeological Bulletin 61 (183): 98-101
Henderson, Z.L., Scott, L., Rossouw, L., & Jacobs, Z. 2006. Dating, Palaeoenvironments and Archaeology: a progress report on the Sunnyside 1 Site, Clarens, South Africa. In: Ashmore, W., Dobres, M.A., nelson, S.M. & Rosen, A. (eds). Integrating the Diversity of Twenty-First-Century Anthropology: the Life and Intellectual Legacies of Susan Kent. Archaeological papers of the American Anthropological Association. 16: 139-149
Rossouw, L. 2006. Florisian mammal fossils from erosional gullies along the Modder River at Mitasrust farm, central Free State, South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 22(6): 145-162
Grab, S., Scott, L. Rossouw, L. & Meyer S. 2005. Holocene palaeoenvironments inferred from a sedimentary sequence in the Tsoaing River Basin, western Lesotho. Catena 61: 49 – 62
Scott, L. & Rossouw, L. 2005. Reassessment of botanical evidence for palaeoenvironments at Florisbad, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 60 (182): 96 – 102
Bamford, M. & Henderson, Z.L. 2003. A reassessment of the wooden fragment from Florisbad, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 637-650
L’Abbé, E. Henderson, Z.L. & Loots, M. 2003. Uncovering a nineteenth century epidemic at Koffiefontein, South Africa. World Archaeology 35: 306-318
Henderson, Z.L. 2002. A dated cache of ostrich egg flasks from Thomas’ Farm, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 57: 38-42
Brink, J.S. & Henderson, Z.L. 2001. A high-resolution Last Interglacial MSA Horizon at Florisbad in the context of other open-air occurrences in the central interior of southern Africa: an interim statement. In: Conard, N.J. (ed.) Settlement dynamics of the Middle Palaeolithic and Middle Stone Age. Tubingen: Kerns Verlag. pp 1-20
Henderson, Z.L. 2001. The integrity of the Unit F Middle Stone Age Horizon at Florisbad, South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 17(2): 25-53
Brink, J.S. & Rossouw , L. 2000. New trial excavations at the Cornelia-Uitzoek type locality. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 16(6): 141–156
Churchill, S.E., Brink, J.S., Berger, L.R. Hutchison, R.A., Rossouw L., et al. 2000. Erfkroon: a new Florisian fossil locality from fluvial contexts in the western Free State, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 96: 161 – 163
Jacobson, L., van der Westhuizen, W.A. & Dreyer, J. 1998. The compositional relationship between pottery and its source clay: An example from the work of a traditional potter on the farm Nonnashoek, Bethlehem, Free State.
Dreyer, J. 1997. Slag from Late Iron Age sites: metal-working or cow dung? Research by the National Cultural History and Open-Air Museum 6:90-99
Dreyer, J. 1997. A tuyère fragment from the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve, Ventersburg, Free State. Southern African Field Archaeology 6(2): 88-92
Henderson, Z.L. & Binneman, J. 1997. Changes in the significance of a site: the Klasies Cave Complex in the Middle and Later Stone Ages. In: Bonsall, C. & Tolan-Smith, C. (eds). The Human Use of Caves. Oxford, BAR International Series 667: 175-184
Dreyer, J. 1996. Index to: Maggs, T.M. 1976. The Iron Age Communities of the Southern Highveld. Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg. Occasional Paper no. 1. Department of Archaeology, National Museum, Bloemfontein,
Dreyer, J. 1996. Clay "figurines" from the Riet River - A case of natural site formation. Southern African Field Archaeology 5(2): 99-102
Rossouw, L. 1996. The extraction of opal phytoliths from the fossilised teeth of two bovid species from Florisbad. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 12(8): 165 - 175
Dreyer, J. 1995. Late Iron Age sites in the Magaliesberg Valley: Jones' (1935) stone structures revisited. Southern African Field Archaeology 4(1): 50-57
Karstel, M. 1995. The Basotho blanket, borrowed but traditional. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 11(8): 193-223
Loubser, J.H.N. 1994. Ndebele Archaeology of the Pietersburg area. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 10(2): 62-147
Dreyer, J. 1994. Cartridges and chronology - an excersise in relative dating. Southern African Field Archaeology 3(1): 44-48
Dreyer, J. 1993. The Basotho hut: From Late Iron Age to the present. South African Journal of Ethnology 16(3): 79-86
Loubser, J.H.N. 1993. Ndondondwane: the significance of features and finds from a ninth century site on the lower Thukela River, Natal. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 5: 109-151
Brink, J.S., Dreyer, J.J.B. & Loubser, J.H.N. 1992. Rescue excavations at Pramberg, Jacobsdal, south-western Orange Free State. Southern African Field Archaeology 1(1): 54-60
Dreyer, J.J.B. 1992. The Iron Age Archaeology of Doornpoort, Winburg, Orange Free State. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 8(7): 262-390
Dreyer, J. 1992. A report on the archaeology of the Qwaqwa Museum site. Southern African Field Archaeology 1(2): 80-87
Henderson, Z.L. 1992. The context of some Middle Stone Age hearths at Klasies River Shelter 1B: implications for understanding human behaviour. Southern African Field Archaeology 1: 14-26
Dreyer, J. 1991. Basotho prehistory in the Orange Free State. In: Slotta, R. & Skalli, M. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Preservation and Presentation of the Cultural Heritage of Lesotho. Bochum: German Mining Museum.
Loubser, J.H.N. 1991. The ethnoarchaeology of Venda-speakers in Southern Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 7(8): 145-164
Loubser, J. & Verhagen, B. 1991. Radiocarbon dates covering the last thousand years in the Soutpansberg area. South African Journal of Science 87: 470-472
Loubser, J.H.N. 1990. Oral traditions, archeology and history of Venda mitupo. African Studies 49: 13-43
Loubser, J.H.N. 1989. Archaeology and early Venda history. In: Deacon, J. (ed.). South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 6: 54-61
Sampson, C.G. 1985. Atlas of Stone Age Settlements in the Central and Upper Seacow Valley. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 20 116 pp
Dreyer, J.J.B. 1975. Tanged and barbed arrowheads. South African Archaeological Bulletin 30: 44
Sampson, C.G. 1972. The Stone Age Industries of the Orange River Scheme and South Africa. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 6 288 pp
Sampson, C.G. 1970. The Smithfield Industrial Complex: Further Field Results. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 5 172 pp
Hoffman, A.C. & Baard, E. 1969. Bushman engravings on walking sticks, magic sticks, a calabash and ostrich egg-shells. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(8): 238-242
Sampson, C.G. 1968. The Middle Stone Age Industries of the Orange River Scheme Area. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 4 111 pp
Sampson, C.G. 1967. Excavations at Zaayfontein Shelter, Norvalspont, Northern Cape. Researches of the National Museum 2(4): 41-119
Sampson, C.G. 1967. Excavations at Glen Elliot Shelter, Colesberg District, Northern Cape. Researches of the National Museum 2(5): 125-209
Sampson, C.G. 1967. Zeekoegat 13: A Later Stone Age Open-site near Venterstad, Cape. Researches of the National Museum 2(6): 211-237
Sampson, G. & Sampson, M. 1967. Riversmead Shelter: Excavations and Analysis. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 3 111 pp
Hoffman, A.C. & Esterhuyse, D.J. 1965. Preliminary Report on Archaeological, Palaeontological and Anthropological Field Expeditions in the Orange River Area. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(2): 21-27
Walton, J. 1965. Early Ghoya Settlement in the Orange Free State. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 2
Esterhuyse, D.J. 1962. Preliminary Note on Phallic Objects from Spitskop. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(1): 1-5
Louw, J.T. 1960. Prehistory of the Matjes River Rock Shelter. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 1.
Meiring, A.J.D. 1956. The Macrolithic Culture of Florisbad. Researches of the National Museum 1(9): 205-237
Walton, J. 1953. The Dagga Pipes of Southern Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(4): 85-113
Meiring, A.J.D. 1952. Polished-edge bone implements. Researches of the National Museum 1(2): 30-34
Dreyer, T.F. 1947. Further observations on the Florisbad Skull. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(15): 183-190
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1939. Some aspects in South African Archaeology. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(9): 79-94
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1939. A preliminary account of new South African cultures. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(10): 96-97
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1939. A pre-European Bantu culture in the Lydenburg district. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(5)
Dreyer, T.F. 1938. The Archaeology of the Florisbad Deposits. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(8)
Dreyer, T.F. 1937. The "Wilton" Skulls of the Matjes River Shelter. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(6): 51-79
Dreyer, T.F. 1936. The endocranial cast of the Florisbad Skull - a correction. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(3): 22-23
Dreyer, T.F. 1936. The Significance of the Bushman Skull. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(4): 25-31
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. Die oorblyfsels van Buispoort en Braklaagte, noordwes van Zeerust. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(1)
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. Nog 'n klippyp van die Kliphutkultuur. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(2)
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. 'n Versameling van merkwaardige voorwerpe van die Oer-Bahoeroetsie. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(3)
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. 'n Versameling daggapype uit die distrik Bethlehem. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(4)
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Koningse Kultuur. II. Die verspreiding van die Koningse Industrie. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(2)
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Suid-Afrikaanse klipwerktuie in internasionale verband. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(3)
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Mosselbaaise kultuur. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(4)
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. 'n Nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse Kultuur. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(6): 59-61
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Oog van die Leeu. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(7): 63-64
Curson, H.H., Thomas, A.D. & Neitz, W.O. 1932. Studies in Native Animal Husbandry. 3. Native Milking Pails. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(5): 55-58
Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1928. Die Koningse Kultuur. I. Die Koningse Industrie. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(1) Published Abstracts
Coetzee, G. 2014. Sprinkane – Die agste plaag. Culna 69:14-15.
Coetzee, G. 2013. Bulhoek, meer as net ‘n feesterrein. Culna 68:28-29.
Coetzee, G. 2012. Blik, jou ou doring! Culna 67:33.
Coetzee, G. 2011. Dalk gedink dis net ‘n geroeste ou blik? Aikona! Culna 66:28-29.
Coetzee, G. 2009. Vaalbank – eens ‘n plek van feeste, nou vergete. Culna 64:25-26.
Coetzee, G. 2008. Welkomskraal – die raaisel verdiep. Culna 63: 28-30
Henderson, Z.L. & Koortzen, C. 2008. Maloti Drakensberg Transfrontier Project. Culna 63: 11-12
Philip, L. 2008. Garbology…just a load of rubbish? Culna 63: 35-36
Uys, T. 2008. Ammunition dumps of the Anglo-Boer War. Culna 63: 19-20
Coetzee, G. & Uys, T. 2007. The identification of objects from an Anglo-Boer War rubbish dump. Culna 62: 23-25
Henderson, Z.L. 2007. Badimong – the place of the ancestors. ToGoTo
Rossouw, L. 2007. Direct evidence of grass in the diet of Later Stone Age people. Culna 62: 26-27
Henderson, Z.L. 2006. Walls and a remound farm: the Anglo-Boer War landscape of northern Bloemfontein. Culna 61: 14-15
Coetzee, G. 2005. Vroeë strafmetodes en openbare teregstellings in die Kaapkolonie en Vrystaat. Culna 60: 25-26
Henderson, Z.L. 2005. Modderpoort: a place of replenishment. Nouveau 11: 74-75
Henderson, Z.L. 2003. A miner’s graveyard at Koffiefontein. Culna 58: 33-34
Holt, S. 2002. Boomerangs from Australia. Culna 57: 14-15
Henderson, Z.L. 2001. The Middle Stone Age Horizon at Florisbad. Culna 56: 28-29
Rossouw, L. 2001. The extinct, Giant Long-Horned Buffalo of Africa (Pelorovis antiquus). Culna 56: 14-15
Henderson, Z.L. 2000. Transgariep Branch outing to excavate an ostrich eggshell cache on Thomas's Farm, Belmont, Northern Cape. The Digging Stick 17(2): 1-3
Henderson, Z.L. 1999. Archaeological investigations at Fort Drury. Culna 54: 7-9
Henderson, Z.L. 1997. A bullet hole in the chest. Culna 52: 35-37
Dreyer, J. 1996. The Mountain to Mohammed - A new approach for museums in South Africa. Samantix 25: 6
Dreyer, R. & Dreyer, J. 1996. Natural clay (mud) as a primitive play medium. Kleuterklanke 21(2): 35-36
Henderson, Z.L. 1996. Interesting hippopotamus finds at Florisbad. Culna 50: 29-30
Henderson, Z.L. 1995. The Venters of Florisbad. Culna 48: 14-16
Henderson, Z.L. 1995. Mud packs and mineral baths at Florisbad. Culna 49: 38
Dreyer, J. 1994. Mineralebronne van OVS. Bloemfontein. Annual Report Free State Agricultural Union 97
Dreyer, J. 1994. "Een motorlorrie van die firma Atkinson". Culna 47: 18-20
Henderson, Z.L. 1994. Captain R. Egerton Helme: a benefactor of research. Culna 46: 28-29
Dreyer, J. 1993. Laat Ystertydperk argeologiese terrein op Doornkloof, Lindley. Culna 44: 24-25
Dreyer, J. 1993. Minerale bronne van die Oranje-Vrystaat. Culna 45: 11-13
Dreyer, J. 1992. John Waldemar Daniel Muff-Ford - Kunstenaar. Culna 42: 10-11
Dreyer, J. 1992. Die Sotho-hut: verlede tot hede. Culna 43: 8-10
Henderson, Z.L. 1992. The Florisbad Skull – a diamond jubilee. Culna 43: 18-19
Henderson, Z.L. 1991. Early modern people and the Middle Stone Age connection. Culna 41: 9-10
Loubser, J. 1991. The model of Dzata at the National Museum. Culna 40: 24-25
Coetsee, K. 1990. Die voorvaders roep... Culna 38: 20-22
Loubser, J. 1990. Venda pottery and origins. Culna 38: 27-28
Coetsee, K. 1989. Ydelheid jou naam is vrou. National Museum News 36: 8-11
Coetsee, K. 1989. Die doodskis was 'n kleipot. National Museum News 37: 30-32
Dreyer, J. 1989. Argeologieprojek vir skoliere deur Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein. Education and Culture 12(2): 22-23
Dreyer, J. 1989. Argeologie en bewaring. Cura (Newsletter National Monuments Council, Free State Region) 1: 9-12
Dreyer, J. 1989. An extraordinary tool for archaeological excavations. The Digging Stick 6(3): 4-5
Dreyer, J. 1989. Patroondopppies en Datums - Gebruiksartikels as Dateringsmiddel. National Museum News 36: 26-28
Dreyer, J. 1989. Dr. A.C. Hoffman, Direkteur van die Nasionale Museum, 1951-1969. National Museum News 37: 40-42
Coetsee, K. 1988. Koper in die Ystertydperk. National Museum News 34: 10-11
Coetsee, K. 1988. Sout van die aarde. National Museum News 35: 3-4
Dreyer, J.J.B. 1988. Evelina Mokoena - pottemaakster. National Museum News 34: 4-5
Dreyer, J. 1988. Hoffman-Angola-Ekspedisie. National Museum News 35: 8-9
Coetsee, C.J. 1987. Maphororong - 'n raaisel word ondersoek. National Museum News 32: 6-7
Coetsee, K. 1987. Kannibalisme. National Museum News 33: 14
Dreyer, J. 1987. Generaal C.R. De Wet argeologies ontmoet. National Museum News 32: 10-11
Dreyer, J.J.B. 1987. Die Romantiek van Argeologiese Navorsing. National Museum News 33: 28-29
Coetsee, C.J. 1986. Maphororong. National Museum News 31: 8
Dreyer, J.J.B. 1986. Klipmure vertel verhale. National Museum News 30: 26-28
Dreyer, J.J.B. 1986. "Spreeupotte" en die Sotho-hut. National Museum News 31: 20-21
Henderson, Z.L. 1986. Sterilizing the Past. The Digging Stick. 3(2): 4-5
Dreyer, J.J.B. 1985. Argeologiese opgrawings op Doornpoort 19, Winburg. National Museum News29: 22-24
Dreyer, J. 1982. Argeologie in die Museum. National Museum News 22: 8-9
Dreyer, J. 1976. 'n Ystertydperkterrein in die Botaniese Tuin, Bloemfontein. Veld & Flora, December 1976: 31
Dreyer, J. 1975. Versamel? Ja, maar nie fossiele of klipwerktuie nie. National Museum News 9
Dreyer, J. 1994. Redaksioneel: 1994 - Krisis of keerpunt? Culna 46: 4
Dreyer, J. 1994. Editorial: What's in a name? Culna 47: 4
Dreyer, J. 1995. CULNA FORUM: Preservation - whose responsibility? Culna 48: 5
Dreyer, J. 1996. CULNA FORUM: Culna 50. Culna 50: 5
Dreyer, J. 1998. Waste Management: Its relevance to the Museum. Culna 53
Loubser, J. 1990. Guest editorial: Skeletons in our cupboards: archaeologists and conservation. South African Archaeological Bulletin 45(152): 71-72
Loubser, J. 1991. Editorial: Conserving cultural material, a neglected necessity in South African museums. Culna 40: 3
The Archaeology Collection came into being as a result of early collections by Museum staff as well as various objects that have been donated to the Museum by members of the public. It now also includes the major collections of Sampson (Stone Age artefacts from the Orange River areas of the Gariep and Van der Kloof dams), Maggs (Iron Age collections from the Free State) and Dreyer (Iron Age collections from the Winburg area), as well as the Matjes River (a Stone Age site from the southern Cape coast), Welbedacht and Doornpoort collections. New material accessioned into the Collection includes material from South African War sites in and around Bloemfontein.
Handaxe, Early Stone Age