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Bloemfontein, South Africa

Archaeology & Anthropology

Archaeology and Anthropology

Study of Prehistoric Cultures and Study of African Cultures


Head of Department and Principal Museum Scientist: Dr Will Archer

Will Archer is an Africanist archaeologist with broader interests in the effects of ecological context on hominin behavioural evolution over the last 3 million years. Will is interested in generating new, high quality data sets relevant to human evolutionary history, through the study of existing museum collections with novel digital techniques, and through new excavations using well-established recording methodologies.

Will’s collaborative Early Stone Age research concerns the origins of cultural behavior, involving the oldest flaked stone industries and associated hominin subsistence ~2.7-1.9 ma (Ethiopia), the emergence of the earliest bifacial stone artefact technologies ~1.7-1.4 ma (Kenya/South Africa), and the ~900-300 ka shift to complex patterns of hominin landscape use in the southern African later Acheulean. The current key focus of his research is later, and concerns the proliferation of evidence for cultural complexity during MIS 5-4 in southern Africa, and the spatial and temporal expression of equivalent behaviours in other African regions and across the globe.He directs two South African field-projects, and undertakes leadership roles in others.

Will holds Bachelors, Honours and two Masters degrees from the University of Cape Town (South Africa), and a PhD from Leiden University (Netherlands). Prior to taking up his position at the National Museum, Will was a scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Germany), where he is still holds a research associateship.

Museum Scientist

Loudine Philip M Phil loudine.philip@nasmus.co.za


Loudine Philip left a successful career in Human Resource Management in 1996 to pursue a career in a lifelong interest, archaeology. After obtaining her BA degree (cum laude), majoring in Archaeology and Biblical Archaeology, from the University of South Africa (UNISA), she enrolled as a full time student at the University of Pretoria and obtained her BHCS (Hons) degree (cum laude) specializing in Archaeology. Her new career started off at the University of Pretoria where she headed up the heritage section of the Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (CINDEK) whilst also lecturing at the Department of Archaeology. Through UNISA she has subsequently received additional training in Anthropology, Development Studies and African Politics which she felt imperative for a thorough understanding of the human landscape of the African continent.

In 2013 Loudine completed her M.Phil. at the University of Cape Town and graduated in June 2014. With this she expanded her field of knowledge within archaeology to include the built environment. Loudine’s current focus is on the last 500 years in the history of southern Africa which places it in both Late Iron Age and Historical Archaeology, researching this within the broader context of Landscape Archaeology.

She is a member of the Association for Southern African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA) as well as a member of its Cultural Resource Management (CRM) section with the following specialist accreditations:

  • Principal Investigator – Built Environment;
  • Field Director – Colonial Period, Industrial, Iron Age and Stone Age Archaeology; and
  • Field Supervisor – Grave Relocation

Principal Conservator

Gerda Coetzee MA gerda.coetzee@nasmus.co.za


Gerda Coetzee matriculated in 1990 at the Paul Kruger High School, Steynsburg, Eastern Cape. She obtained a BA degree through UNISA, majoring in Archaeology and Anthropology, and an Honours degree in Archaeology (cum laude) at the University of Pretoria. She joined the National Museum in September 2005 and since then underwent several courses and workshops in conservation such as metal conservation and ceramic conservation. She obtained a Masters degree in Historical Archaeology through UNISA in 2012. Gerda is a member of the Association for South African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA), as well as the Cultural Resource Management (CRM) section of ASAPA, with Field Supervisor status in Iron Age and Stone Age Archaeology and Field Director status in Colonial Period Archaeology.

Myra-MashimbyeResearch Assistant

Myra Gohodzi MSc myra@nasmus.co.za

Myra Mashimbye graduated with Archaeology and Physical Geography for her BA and continued her training in southern African archaeology to receive a BA Honours degree at the University of the Witwatersrand. She has also achieved a degree of Master of Science in Archaeology. Myra was appointed as Research Assistant at the Museum in January 2010.

Thys-UysGeneral Assistant

Thys Uys thys.uys@nasmus.co.za

Thys Uys matriculated from Bultfontein High School, Free State Province and holds a BA degree.

Assistant Museum Scientist

Amy Goitsemodimo MA

Amy-Goitsemodimo HQGosiame “Amy” Goitsemodimo matriculated in 2003 and enrolled for a BA degree in Geography and Environmental Management at the University of the Free State, which she completed in 2006. Her majors were Environmental Management and Anthropology. She completed her Honours in Anthropology the following year. She worked as a Tutor in the Anthropology Department at the University of the Free State for three years and then joined the National Museum in 2008 as a Research Assistant in the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology. In 2009 she was offered a permanent position as Assistant Museum Scientist. Amy has completed her Masters in Anthropology under the supervision of Dr Petro Esterhuyse. She is also a member of the Golden Key International Honour Society and Anthropology Southern Africa Students Association.


Exploring Heat Treatment of Silcrete Artefacts Through Non-destructive Infrared Analysis

Dr. Will Archer, HOD of Archaeology and Anthropology at the National Museum, presented last week at the 13th International Symposium on Knappable Materials in Tarragona, Spain, on the contentious stone heat-treatment debate in the southern African Stone Age. ‘Heat treatment’ means the heating of certain kinds of rocks to increase their qualities for artefact manufacture.

Over the past 10-12 years, archaeologists in southern Africa have debated the methods hominins used to heat-treat silcrete stone artefacts in the African Middle Stone Age, the period associated with the emergence of our species. To simplify, one position argues that heat-treatment was an elaborate and complex procedure, involving the carefully planned, indirect exposure of these rocks to heat (b). Other scientists have argued that silcrete heat-treatment was far simpler, and that this process was managed by hominins no differently than everyday fire-related activities such as cooking meat (a).

The central message of this poster is that the procedures hominins engaged to heat-treat silcrete artefacts can be accurately predicted. We can therefore use this method to assess how hominins heated stone to produce the artefacts they were after in the past, and to investigate what this suggests about the evolution of modern human behavior.

Stone tool enthusiasts can access the full poster here:

Download PDF

Archaeologist presents at international conference.

Dr. Will Archer, along with a set of international collaborators, present a poster and an accompanying slide presentation at the virtual meetings of the European Society for Human Evolution on new digital approaches Archer is developing for the study of African Stone Age artefacts.

Download poster here - Quantifying Hominin Flaking Technologies with 3D Shape Analysis

Archaeologist demonstrates stone tool production virtually for International Museum day:

Dr. Will Archer and colleagues developed a video clip dedicated to children potentially interested in Archaeology for International Museum Day, discussing the fundamentals of early hominin stone artefact making from a practical perspective. This clip was uploaded as a live virtual event on the National Museum Facebook page. In this contribution, Will used local rocks in the Bloemfontein vicinity to describe the process of sharp-edged flake production in prehistory, a key feature of ancient hominin technologies that endured from the earliest African archaeological sites ~2.7 million years ago, right up into stone artefact making of the ethnographic present.

Snapshots of virtual presentation for International Museum Day dedicated to children on (1) Procuring the right stones for artefact manufacture around Bloemfontein, (2) Making stone artefacts, and, (3) Using stone artefacts to process an animal carcass.

Archaeologist initiates field project:

Dr. Will Archer undertook an archaeological field season focussed on initiating excavation of the site of Simon’s Cave on the west coast of South Africa. This project has the goal of drawing on new fieldwork and international collaborations to generate new information on the timing and spatial structure of early Homo sapiens adaptation in Pleistocene southern Africa.

(a) Core field team at Simons Cave (left to right): Ruan Brand, Dr. Will Archer, Joseph Matembo and Dr. Darya Presnyakova, (b) Specialists discussing micromorphological and dating sampling of the archaeological profile (left to right): Joseph Matembo, Dr. Will Archer, Dr. Debra Colarossi and Dr. Mareike Stahlschmidt, (c) Excavation sieving station (left to right): Nazeem van der Westhuizen and Ruan Brand identifying Stone Age ostrich egg-shell beads in the fine sieve (1mm), (d) Joseph Matembo reconstructing an excavated ostrich egg-shell flask at the dig-house.

Publications - Scientific Articles

Santander, C., Molinaro, L., Mutti, G., Martínez, F.I., Mathe, J., Ferreira da Silva, M.J., Caldon, M., Oteo-Garcia, G., Aldeias, V., Archer, W. and Bamford, M., 2022. Genomic variation in baboons from central Mozambique unveils complex evolutionary relationships with other Papio species. BMC ecology and evolution22(1), pp.1-16.

Colarossi, D., Fewlass, H., Stahlschmidt, M.C., Presnyakova, D., Matembo, J., Hein, M., Talamo, S. and Archer, W., 2022. A targeted drilling and dating campaign to identify Stone Age archaeological sites before excavation in west coast southern Africa. Quaternary Geochronology71, p.101314.

Motes-Rodrigo, A., McPherron, S.P., Archer, W., Hernandez-Aguilar, R.A. and Tennie, C., 2022. Experimental investigation of orangutans’ lithic percussive and sharp stone tool behaviours. PloS one17(2), p.e0263343.

Shipton, C., Blinkhorn, J., Archer, W., Kourampas, N., Roberts, P., Prendergast, M.E., Curtis, R., Herries, A.I., Ndiema, E., Boivin, N. and Petraglia, M.D., 2021. The Middle to Later Stone Age transition at Panga ya Saidi, in the tropical coastal forest of eastern Africa. Journal of Human Evolution153.

Martinón-Torres, M., d’Errico, F., Santos, E., Gallo, A.Á., Amano, N., Archer, W., Armitage, S.J., Arsuaga, J.L., de Castro, J.M.B., Blinkhorn, J. and Crowther, A., 2021. Earliest known human burial in Africa. Nature593(7857), pp.95-100.

Bandini, E., Motes-Rodrigo, A., Archer, W., Minchin, T., Axelsen, H., Hernandez-Aguilar, R.A., McPherron, S.P. and Tennie, C., 2021. Naïve, unenculturated chimpanzees fail to make and use flaked stone tools. Open Research Europe1, p.20.

McPherron, S.P., Archer, W., Otárola-Castillo, E.R., Torquato, M.G. and Keevil, T.L., 2021. Machine learning, bootstrapping, null models, and why we are still not 100% sure which bone surface modifications were made by crocodiles. Journal of human evolution, p.103071.

Bobe, R., Aldeias, V., Alemseged, Z., Archer, W., Aumaître, G., Bamford, M.K., Biro, D., Bourles, D.L., Braun, D.R., Capelli, C. and Coelho, J.D.O., 2021. The first Miocene fossils from coastal woodlands in the southern East African Rift.

Archer, W. Carrying capacity, population density and the later Pleistocene expression of backed artefact manufacturing traditions in Africa. (2021) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B

Archer, W., Djakovic, I., Brenet, M., Bourguignon, L., Soressi, M., Presnyakova, D., McPherron., S.P. Quantifying hominin flaking technologies with 3D shape analysis. (2021) Journal of Human Evolution

McPherron S.P., Abdolahzadeh, A., Archer, W., Chan, A., Djakovic, I., Dogandžić, T., Leader, G.M., Li, L., Lin, S., Magnani, M. and Reeves, J. Introducing platform surface interior angle (PSIA) and its role in flake formation, size and shape. (2020) Plos one, 15(11), p.e0241714.

Archer W, Aldeias V, McPherron SP. What is ‘in situ’? A reply to Harmand et al. Journal of Human Evolution. 2020;142:102740.

Braun DR, Aldeias V, Archer W, Arrowsmith JR, Baraki N, Campisano CJ, Deino AL, DiMaggio EN, Dupont-Nivet G, Engda B, Feary DA. Reply to Sahle and Gossa: Technology and geochronology at the earliest known Oldowan site at Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2019;116(41):20261-2.

Braun DR, Aldeias V, Archer W, Arrowsmith JR, Baraki N, Campisano CJ, Deino AL, DiMaggio EN, Dupont-Nivet G, Engda B, Feary DA. Earliest known Oldowan artifacts at> 2.58 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia, highlight early technological diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2019 ;116(24):11712-7.

Martinez FI, Capelli C, da Silva MJ, Aldeias V, Alemseged Z, Archer W, Bamford M, Biro D, Bobe R, Braun DR, Habermann JM. A missing piece of the Papio puzzle: Gorongosa baboon phenostructure and intrageneric relationships. Journal of human evolution. 2019;130:1-20.

Habermann JM, Alberti M, Aldeias V, Alemseged Z, Archer W, Bamford M, Biro D, Braun DR, Capelli C, Cunha E, da Silva MF. Gorongosa by the sea: First Miocene fossil sites from the Urema Rift, central Mozambique, and their coastal paleoenvironmental and paleoecological contexts. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2019;514:723-38.

Archer W, Presnyakova D. Considerations in the application of 3DGM to stone artifacts with a focus on orientation error in bifaces. In 3D Data Acquisition for Bioarchaeology, Forensic Anthropology, and Archaeology 2019 (pp. 161-173). Academic Press.

Coetzee, G. & Havenga, S. 2013.Kinders en hulle speelgoed: ‘n histories-argeologiese studie van Welkomskraal, ‘n pioniersplaas in die distrik Venterstad. South African Journal of Cultural History 28(1):24-45.

Rossouw, L., Stynder, D.D. and Haarhof, P. 2009. Evidence for opal phytolith preservation in the Langebaanweg ‘E’ Quarry Varswater Formation and its potential for palaeohabitat reconstruction. South African Journal of Science 105: 223 – 227

Codron, D. Brink, J.S., Rossouw, L., Claus, M., Codron, J., Lee-Thorp, J. and Sponheimer, M. 2008. Functional differentiation of African grazing ruminants: an example of specialized adaptations to very small changes in diet. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94: 755–764

Codron, D., Brink, J.S. Rossouw, L. and Clauss, M. 2008. The evolution of ecological specialization in southern African ungulates: competition- or physical environmental turnover? Oikos 117(3): 344 – 353

Henderson, Z.L. 2008. Standards for curation of archaeological material: some thoughts on the issues. South African Archaeological Bulletin 63: 79-81

Backwell, L.R., Steininger, C.M, Brink, J., Neveling, J., Rossouw, L. & Pereira, L. 2007. Large mammal mass death accumulation in the Holocene of South Africa. PSSA, Grahamstown, South Africa. Palaeontologia Africana 42: 118

Boonzaaier, CC., & Philip L. 2007. Community-based tourism and its potential to improve living conditions among the Hananwa of Blouberg (Limpopo Province), with particular reference to catering services during winter. Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences 35: 26-38

Brink, J.S., Grun, R., Rossouw, L. and Codron, D. 2007. Mid-Quaternary large mammal succession and extinction in southern Africa. Quaternary International 167 – 168 (3-486)

Rossouw, L and Scott, L. 2006. Ecological significance of South African short-cell phytoliths. 6th Biennial Meeting of the Society for Phytolith Research in Barcelona, Spain, September 2006. Society for Phytolith Research Bulletin 1(1): 14

Curnoe, D., Herries, A., Brink, J., Hopley, P., Van Ryneveld, K., Henderson, Z.L. & Morris, D. 2006. Discovery of Middle Pleistocene fossils and stone tool-bearing deposits at Groot Kloof, Ghaap escarpment, Northern Cape Province. South African Journal of Science 102: 180-184

Sealy, J., Ludwig, B. & Henderson, Z.L. 2006. New Radiocarbon Dates for Matjes River Rock Shelter. South African Archaeological Bulletin 61 (183): 98-101

Henderson, Z.L., Scott, L., Rossouw, L., & Jacobs, Z. 2006. Dating, Palaeoenvironments and Archaeology: a progress report on the Sunnyside 1 Site, Clarens, South Africa. In: Ashmore, W., Dobres, M.A., nelson, S.M. & Rosen, A. (eds). Integrating the Diversity of Twenty-First-Century Anthropology: the Life and Intellectual Legacies of Susan Kent. Archaeological papers of the American Anthropological Association. 16: 139-149

Rossouw, L. 2006. Florisian mammal fossils from erosional gullies along the Modder River at Mitasrust farm, central Free State, South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 22(6): 145-162

Grab, S., Scott, L. Rossouw, L. & Meyer S. 2005. Holocene palaeoenvironments inferred from a sedimentary sequence in the Tsoaing River Basin, western Lesotho. Catena 61: 49 – 62

Scott, L. & Rossouw, L. 2005. Reassessment of botanical evidence for palaeoenvironments at Florisbad, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 60 (182): 96 – 102

Bamford, M. & Henderson, Z.L. 2003. A reassessment of the wooden fragment from Florisbad, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 637-650

L’Abbé, E. Henderson, Z.L. & Loots, M. 2003. Uncovering a nineteenth century epidemic at Koffiefontein, South Africa. World Archaeology 35: 306-318

Henderson, Z.L. 2002. A dated cache of ostrich egg flasks from Thomas’ Farm, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 57: 38-42

Brink, J.S. & Henderson, Z.L. 2001. A high-resolution Last Interglacial MSA Horizon at Florisbad in the context of other open-air occurrences in the central interior of southern Africa: an interim statement. In: Conard, N.J. (ed.) Settlement dynamics of the Middle Palaeolithic and Middle Stone Age. Tubingen: Kerns Verlag. pp 1-20

Henderson, Z.L. 2001. The integrity of the Unit F Middle Stone Age Horizon at Florisbad, South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 17(2): 25-53

Brink, J.S. & Rossouw , L. 2000. New trial excavations at the Cornelia-Uitzoek type locality. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 16(6): 141–156

Churchill, S.E., Brink, J.S., Berger, L.R. Hutchison, R.A., Rossouw L., et al. 2000. Erfkroon: a new Florisian fossil locality from fluvial contexts in the western Free State, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 96: 161 – 163

Jacobson, L., van der Westhuizen, W.A. & Dreyer, J. 1998. The compositional relationship between pottery and its source clay: An example from the work of a traditional potter on the farm Nonnashoek, Bethlehem, Free State.

Dreyer, J. 1997. Slag from Late Iron Age sites: metal-working or cow dung? Research by the National Cultural History and Open-Air Museum 6:90-99

Dreyer, J. 1997. A tuyère fragment from the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve, Ventersburg, Free State. Southern African Field Archaeology 6(2): 88-92

Henderson, Z.L. & Binneman, J. 1997. Changes in the significance of a site: the Klasies Cave Complex in the Middle and Later Stone Ages. In: Bonsall, C. & Tolan-Smith, C. (eds). The Human Use of Caves. Oxford, BAR International Series 667: 175-184

Dreyer, J. 1996. Index to: Maggs, T.M. 1976. The Iron Age Communities of the Southern Highveld. Natal Museum, PietermaritzburgOccasional Paper no. 1. Department of Archaeology, National Museum, Bloemfontein,

Dreyer, J. 1996. Clay "figurines" from the Riet River - A case of natural site formation. Southern African Field Archaeology 5(2): 99-102

Rossouw, L. 1996. The extraction of opal phytoliths from the fossilised teeth of two bovid species from Florisbad. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 12(8): 165 - 175

Dreyer, J. 1995. Late Iron Age sites in the Magaliesberg Valley: Jones' (1935) stone structures revisited. Southern African Field Archaeology 4(1): 50-57

Karstel, M. 1995. The Basotho blanket, borrowed but traditional. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum  11(8): 193-223

Loubser, J.H.N. 1994. Ndebele Archaeology of the Pietersburg area. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 10(2): 62-147

Dreyer, J. 1994. Cartridges and chronology - an excersise in relative dating. Southern African Field Archaeology 3(1): 44-48

Dreyer, J. 1993. The Basotho hut: From Late Iron Age to the present. South African Journal of Ethnology 16(3): 79-86

Loubser, J.H.N. 1993. Ndondondwane: the significance of features and finds from a ninth century site on the lower Thukela River, Natal. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 5: 109-151

Brink, J.S., Dreyer, J.J.B. & Loubser, J.H.N. 1992. Rescue excavations at Pramberg, Jacobsdal, south-western Orange Free State. Southern African Field Archaeology 1(1): 54-60

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1992. The Iron Age Archaeology of Doornpoort, Winburg, Orange Free State. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 8(7): 262-390

Dreyer, J. 1992. A report on the archaeology of the Qwaqwa Museum site. Southern African Field Archaeology 1(2): 80-87

Henderson, Z.L. 1992. The context of some Middle Stone Age hearths at Klasies River Shelter 1B: implications for understanding human behaviour. Southern African Field Archaeology 1: 14-26

Dreyer, J. 1991. Basotho prehistory in the Orange Free State. In: Slotta, R. & Skalli, M. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Preservation and Presentation of the Cultural Heritage of Lesotho. Bochum: German Mining Museum.

Loubser, J.H.N. 1991. The ethnoarchaeology of Venda-speakers in Southern Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum  7(8): 145-164

Loubser, J. & Verhagen, B. 1991. Radiocarbon dates covering the last thousand years in the Soutpansberg area. South African Journal of Science 87: 470-472

Loubser, J.H.N. 1990. Oral traditions, archeology and history of Venda mitupo. African Studies 49: 13-43

Loubser, J.H.N. 1989. Archaeology and early Venda history. In: Deacon, J. (ed.). South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 6: 54-61

Sampson, C.G. 1985. Atlas of Stone Age Settlements in the Central and Upper Seacow Valley. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 20 116 pp

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1975. Tanged and barbed arrowheads. South African Archaeological Bulletin 30: 44

Sampson, C.G. 1972. The Stone Age Industries of the Orange River Scheme and South Africa. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 6 288 pp

Sampson, C.G. 1970. The Smithfield Industrial Complex: Further Field Results. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 5 172 pp

Hoffman, A.C. & Baard, E. 1969. Bushman engravings on walking sticks, magic sticks, a calabash and ostrich egg-shells. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(8): 238-242

Sampson, C.G. 1968. The Middle Stone Age Industries of the Orange River Scheme Area. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 4 111 pp

Sampson, C.G. 1967. Excavations at Zaayfontein Shelter, Norvalspont, Northern Cape.  Researches of the National Museum 2(4): 41-119

Sampson, C.G. 1967. Excavations at Glen Elliot Shelter, Colesberg District, Northern Cape. Researches of the National Museum  2(5): 125-209

Sampson, C.G. 1967. Zeekoegat 13: A Later Stone Age Open-site near Venterstad, Cape. Researches of the National Museum 2(6): 211-237

Sampson, G. & Sampson, M. 1967. Riversmead Shelter: Excavations and Analysis. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 3 111 pp

Hoffman, A.C. & Esterhuyse, D.J. 1965. Preliminary Report on Archaeological, Palaeontological and Anthropological Field Expeditions in the Orange River Area. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum  2(2): 21-27

Walton, J. 1965. Early Ghoya Settlement in the Orange Free State. National Museum, BloemfonteinMemoir No. 2

Esterhuyse, D.J. 1962. Preliminary Note on Phallic Objects from Spitskop. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(1): 1-5

Louw, J.T. 1960. Prehistory of the Matjes River Rock Shelter.  National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 1.

Meiring, A.J.D. 1956. The Macrolithic Culture of Florisbad. Researches of the National Museum  1(9): 205-237

Walton, J. 1953. The Dagga Pipes of Southern Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum  1(4): 85-113

Meiring, A.J.D. 1952. Polished-edge bone implements. Researches of the National Museum 1(2): 30-34

Dreyer, T.F. 1947. Further observations on the Florisbad Skull. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(15): 183-190

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1939. Some aspects in South African Archaeology. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(9): 79-94

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1939. A preliminary account of new South African cultures. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(10): 96-97

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1939. A pre-European Bantu culture in the Lydenburg district. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(5)

Dreyer, T.F. 1938. The Archaeology of the Florisbad Deposits. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(8)

Dreyer, T.F. 1937. The "Wilton" Skulls of the Matjes River Shelter. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(6): 51-79

Dreyer, T.F. 1936. The endocranial cast of the Florisbad Skull - a correction. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(3): 22-23

Dreyer, T.F. 1936. The Significance of the Bushman Skull. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(4): 25-31

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. Die oorblyfsels van Buispoort en Braklaagte, noordwes van Zeerust. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(1)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. Nog 'n klippyp van die Kliphutkultuur. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(2)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. 'n Versameling van merkwaardige voorwerpe van die Oer-Bahoeroetsie. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(3)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. 'n Versameling daggapype uit die distrik Bethlehem. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum  2(4)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Koningse Kultuur. II. Die verspreiding van die Koningse Industrie. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(2)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Suid-Afrikaanse klipwerktuie in internasionale verband. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(3)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Mosselbaaise kultuur. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(4)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. 'n Nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse Kultuur. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(6): 59-61

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Oog van die Leeu. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(7): 63-64

Curson, H.H., Thomas, A.D. & Neitz, W.O. 1932. Studies in Native Animal Husbandry. 3. Native Milking Pails. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(5): 55-58

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1928. Die Koningse Kultuur. I. Die Koningse Industrie. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(1) Published Abstracts

Publications - Popular Articles

Goitsemodimo, G. 2020. Umqombothi: Our African Beer. CULNA 75

Archer, W. 2020. “Archaeological Excavation – history of research and evolving traditions at the site of Montagu Cave”. CULNA 75

Goitsemodimo, G. 2020. Prophetess Anna Mantsopa. CULNA 74.

Goitsemodimo, G. 2020. Modjadji: The Rain Queen. CULNA 74, pp 4-5.

Goitsemodimo, G. 2019. Weapons of Southern Africa. CULNA 73, pp 18-19.

Goitsemodimo, G. 2017. Let it rain: Rainmaking Rituals and Ceremonies of Southern Africa. CULNA 72, pp 6-7.

Goitsemodimo, G. 2016. Mural Art in South Africa. CULNA 71, pp 6-7.

Goitsemodimo, G. 2015. Music and Dance in Africa. CULNA 70, pp 18-19.

Coetzee, G.  2017. Trek- en pioniersboere van die Noordoos-Kaap en Suid-Vrystaat.  Culna 72, pp 14-15.   

Coetzee, G.  2016.  Vullisverwyderingspraktyke op die pioniersplaas Welkomskraal, Venterstad:  ‘n Argeologies-historiese verkenning.  South African Journal of Cultural History 30(1):75-95

Coetzee, G. 2014. Sprinkane – Die agste plaag. Culna 69:14-15.

Coetzee, G. 2013. Bulhoek, meer as net ‘n feesterrein. Culna 68:28-29.

Coetzee, G. 2012. Blik, jou ou doring! Culna 67:33.

Coetzee, G. 2011. Dalk gedink dis net ‘n geroeste ou blik? Aikona! Culna 66:28-29.

Coetzee, G. 2009. Vaalbank – eens ‘n plek van feeste, nou vergete. Culna 64:25-26.

Coetzee, G. 2008. Welkomskraal – die raaisel verdiep. Culna 63: 28-30

Henderson, Z.L. & Koortzen, C. 2008. Maloti Drakensberg Transfrontier Project. Culna 63: 11-12

Philip, L. 2008. Garbology…just a load of rubbish? Culna 63: 35-36

Uys, T. 2008. Ammunition dumps of the Anglo-Boer War. Culna 63: 19-20

Coetzee, G. & Uys, T. 2007. The identification of objects from an Anglo-Boer War rubbish dump. Culna 62: 23-25

Henderson, Z.L. 2007. Badimong – the place of the ancestors. ToGoTo

Rossouw, L. 2007. Direct evidence of grass in the diet of Later Stone Age people. Culna 62: 26-27

Henderson, Z.L. 2006. Walls and a remound farm: the Anglo-Boer War landscape of northern Bloemfontein. Culna 61: 14-15

Coetzee, G. 2005. Vroeë strafmetodes en openbare teregstellings in die Kaapkolonie en Vrystaat. Culna 60: 25-26

Henderson, Z.L. 2005. Modderpoort: a place of replenishment. Nouveau 11: 74-75

Henderson, Z.L. 2003. A miner’s graveyard at Koffiefontein. Culna 58: 33-34

Holt, S. 2002. Boomerangs from Australia. Culna 57: 14-15

Henderson, Z.L. 2001. The Middle Stone Age Horizon at Florisbad. Culna 56: 28-29

Rossouw, L. 2001. The extinct, Giant Long-Horned Buffalo of Africa (Pelorovis antiquus). Culna 56: 14-15

Henderson, Z.L. 2000. Transgariep Branch outing to excavate an ostrich eggshell cache on Thomas's Farm, Belmont, Northern Cape. The Digging Stick 17(2): 1-3

Henderson, Z.L. 1999. Archaeological investigations at Fort Drury. Culna 54: 7-9

Henderson, Z.L. 1997. A bullet hole in the chest. Culna 52: 35-37

Dreyer, J. 1996. The Mountain to Mohammed - A new approach for museums in South Africa. Samantix 25: 6

Dreyer, R. & Dreyer, J. 1996. Natural clay (mud) as a primitive play medium. Kleuterklanke 21(2): 35-36

Henderson, Z.L. 1996. Interesting hippopotamus finds at Florisbad. Culna 50: 29-30

Henderson, Z.L. 1995. The Venters of Florisbad. Culna 48: 14-16

Henderson, Z.L. 1995. Mud packs and mineral baths at Florisbad. Culna 49: 38

Dreyer, J. 1994. Mineralebronne van OVS. Bloemfontein. Annual Report Free State Agricultural Union  97

Dreyer, J. 1994. "Een motorlorrie van die firma Atkinson". Culna 47: 18-20

Henderson, Z.L. 1994. Captain R. Egerton Helme: a benefactor of research. Culna 46: 28-29

Dreyer, J. 1993. Laat Ystertydperk argeologiese terrein op Doornkloof, Lindley. Culna 44: 24-25

Dreyer, J. 1993. Minerale bronne van die Oranje-Vrystaat. Culna 45: 11-13

Dreyer, J. 1992. John Waldemar Daniel Muff-Ford - Kunstenaar. Culna 42: 10-11

Dreyer, J. 1992. Die Sotho-hut: verlede tot hede. Culna 43: 8-10

Henderson, Z.L. 1992. The Florisbad Skull – a diamond jubilee. Culna 43: 18-19

Henderson, Z.L. 1991. Early modern people and the Middle Stone Age connection. Culna 41: 9-10

Loubser, J. 1991. The model of Dzata at the National Museum. Culna 40: 24-25

Coetsee, K. 1990. Die voorvaders roep... Culna 38: 20-22

Loubser, J. 1990. Venda pottery and origins. Culna 38: 27-28

Coetsee, K. 1989. Ydelheid jou naam is vrou. National Museum News 36: 8-11

Coetsee, K. 1989. Die doodskis was 'n kleipot. National Museum News 37: 30-32

Dreyer, J. 1989. Argeologieprojek vir skoliere deur Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein. Education and Culture 12(2): 22-23

Dreyer, J. 1989. Argeologie en bewaring. Cura (Newsletter National Monuments Council, Free State Region) 1: 9-12

Dreyer, J. 1989. An extraordinary tool for archaeological excavations. The Digging Stick 6(3): 4-5

Dreyer, J. 1989. Patroondopppies en Datums - Gebruiksartikels as Dateringsmiddel. National Museum News 36: 26-28

Dreyer, J. 1989. Dr. A.C. Hoffman, Direkteur van die Nasionale Museum, 1951-1969. National Museum News 37: 40-42

Coetsee, K. 1988. Koper in die Ystertydperk. National Museum News 34: 10-11

Coetsee, K. 1988. Sout van die aarde. National Museum News 35: 3-4

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1988. Evelina Mokoena - pottemaakster. National Museum News 34: 4-5

Dreyer, J. 1988. Hoffman-Angola-Ekspedisie. National Museum News 35: 8-9

Coetsee, C.J. 1987. Maphororong - 'n raaisel word ondersoek. National Museum News 32: 6-7

Coetsee, K. 1987. Kannibalisme. National Museum News 33: 14

Dreyer, J. 1987. Generaal C.R. De Wet argeologies ontmoet. National Museum News 32: 10-11

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1987. Die Romantiek van Argeologiese Navorsing. National Museum News 33: 28-29

Coetsee, C.J. 1986. Maphororong. National Museum News 31: 8

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1986. Klipmure vertel verhale. National Museum News 30: 26-28

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1986. "Spreeupotte" en die Sotho-hut. National Museum News 31: 20-21

Henderson, Z.L. 1986. Sterilizing the Past. The Digging Stick. 3(2): 4-5

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1985. Argeologiese opgrawings op Doornpoort 19, Winburg. National Museum News29: 22-24

Dreyer, J. 1982. Argeologie in die Museum. National Museum News 22: 8-9

Dreyer, J. 1976. 'n Ystertydperkterrein in die Botaniese Tuin, Bloemfontein. Veld & Flora, December 1976: 31

Dreyer, J. 1975. Versamel? Ja, maar nie fossiele of klipwerktuie nie. National Museum News 9

Publications - Editorials

Philip L. 2020. Book review: Sol Plaatje – A life of Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje 1876-1932 by Brian Willan. South African Journal of Cultural History 34(2): 95-98

Philip L. 2016. Jagersfontein – the forgotten gem of the Free State. New Contree 76: 74 - 95

Dreyer, J. 1998. Waste Management: Its relevance to the Museum. Culna 53

Dreyer, J. 1996. CULNA FORUM: Culna 50. Culna 50: 5

Dreyer, J. 1995. CULNA FORUM: Preservation - whose responsibility? Culna 48: 5

Dreyer, J. 1994. Redaksioneel: 1994 - Krisis of keerpunt? Culna 46: 4

Dreyer, J. 1994. Editorial: What's in a name? Culna 47: 4

Loubser, J. 1991. Editorial: Conserving cultural material, a neglected necessity in South African museums. Culna 40: 3

Loubser, J. 1990. Guest editorial: Skeletons in our cupboards: archaeologists and conservation. South African Archaeological Bulletin 45(152): 71-72


The Archaeology Collection came into being as a result of early collections by Museum staff as well as various objects that have been donated to the Museum by members of the public.  It now also includes the major collections of Sampson (Stone Age artefacts from the Orange River areas of the Gariep and Van der Kloof dams), Maggs (Iron Age collections from the Free State) and Dreyer (Iron Age collections from the Winburg area), as well as the Matjes River (a Stone Age site from the southern Cape coast), Welbedacht and Doornpoort collections. New material accessioned into the Collection includes material from South African War sites in and around Bloemfontein.


Handaxe, Early Stone Age

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