Anthropology & Archaeology


Study of Prehistoric Cultures

The Department of Archaeology conducts research projects rooted in both the humanities and natural sciences. Specific research interests include issues related to the interpretation of past ecosystems, the history of early farming communities, as well as the archaeology of more recent colonial settlement in the central interior. The Department also consults on Cultural Resource Management, working with both government and the private sector to widen public awareness of the importance of the country’s heritage. The Department of Archaeology is home to major collections, including Stone Age artefacts from the Orange River areas of the Gariep and Van der Kloof dams, Iron Age collections from the Free State, as well as Later Stone Age cultural material from cave sites along the southern Cape coast. New material accessioned to the Collection includes material from South African War sites in and around Bloemfontein.


Musical instruments donated to Museum


12 January 2017
A number of old harmonicas and a Hohner accordion (1904) have been donated to the historical archaeology and cultural studies devision of the Archaeology Department. The Museum would like to receive more old harmonicas, accordions and consertinas, regardless of their condition, for research. Please contact Gerda Coetzee (051 447 9609 /

Archaeologist attends conference in France

Archaeology Frankryk 2016-06-27 (556) L Rossouw, Place du Capitole, Toulouse

11 January 2017
Dr Lloyd Rossouw, Head of the Archaeology Department, attended the 23rd biennial conference of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists in Toulouse, France, at the Université Jean Jaurès from 26 June to 2 July. He presented a paper on the palaeo-environmental application of fossil grass phytoliths from Early Stone Age occupation layers at Wonderwerk Cave in the Northern Cape Province.

Conference presentations

27 June 2013
Gerda Coetzee presented several posters at the ASAPA (Association for South African Professional Archaeologists) Conference which took place at the Kamhlaba United World College, Mbabane, Swaziland from 1-2 July 2011. (Posters can be downloaded).

Gerda Intro to WKK Poster

Gerda Coetzee

An introduction to Welkomskraal: A farming community in the Eastern Cape Province dating from the 1880s to the 1920s


Gerda Poster - Rubbish and middens

Gerda Coetzee

The disposal of rubbish and the location of middens:  A case study from the farm Welkomskraal in the Eastern Cape Province


Gerda Poster - Holy Communion

Gerda Coetzee

Material culture studies:   studying advertisements and events surrounding the traditional Holy Communion weekend:  A case study from the farm Welkomskraal, Eastern Cape Province


Sudre poster buttons

Sudré Havenga & Gerda Coetzee

Unbuttoning the past:  buttons found at Welkomskraal in the Eastern Cape

PDF 900 KB

Annie Poster

Annie R. Antonites & Gerda Coetzee

The market economy of sheep farming in the 19th  and 20th century Cape Colony:  A case study form the Eastern Cape Province

PDF 934 KB

Speelgoed Poster

Gerda Coetzee presented a poster at the National Conference of the South African Society for Cultural History which took place in George from 24-25 May 2013.

Gerda Coetzee & Sudré Havenga

Speelgoed en beeldjies gevind te Welkomskraal, distrik Venterstad, Noordoos-Kaap: ‘n Histories-Argeologiese studie


Gerda also gave an oral presention on the same topic at the conference.


Senior Museum Scientist and Head of Department

Lloyd Rossouw PhD

Lloyd-RossouwLloyd Rossouw obtained his BA degree, majoring in Archaeology and Cultural Anthropology, and went on to receive training in southern African archaeology at Honours level at the University of Stellenbosch Archaeology Department. He received specialized training in faunal osteology and Quaternary palaeontology for his MSc (cum laude) at the Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research (BPI) at the Univesity of the Witwatersrand. He also received instruction in human anatomy at Duke University Medical School in Durham, North Carolina, USA. For his PhD degree, obtained in 2009 at the University of the Free State, he developed an archaeobotanical method that can be applied to fossil grass phytoliths to estimate past environmental conditions. He is a member of the Association for South African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA) as well as a member of its Cultural Resource Management (CRM) section, with accreditation in the following areas of professional archaeological specialization: Principal Investigator, Specialist Analysis for archaeobotany and archaeozoology and Field Supervisor for Stone Age archaeology.

Museum Scientist

Loudine Philip M Phil

Loudine-PhilipLoudine Philip left a successful career in Human Resource Management in 1996 to pursue a career in a lifelong interest, archaeology. After obtaining her BA degree (cum laude), majoring in Archaeology and Biblical Archaeology, from the University of South Africa (UNISA), she enrolled as a full time student at the University of Pretoria and obtained her BHCS (Hons) degree (cum laude) specializing in Archaeology. Her new career started off at the University of Pretoria where she headed up the heritage section of the Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (CINDEK) whilst also lecturing at the Department of Archaeology. Through UNISA she has subsequently received additional training in Anthropology, Development Studies and African Politics which she felt imperative for a thorough understanding of the human landscape of the African continent.

In 2013 Loudine completed her M.Phil. at the University of Cape Town and graduated in June 2014. With this she expanded her field of knowledge within archaeology to include the built environment. Loudine’s current focus is on the last 500 years in the history of southern Africa which places it in both Late Iron Age and Historical Archaeology, researching this within the broader context of Landscape Archaeology. She is a member of the Association for South African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA) as well as a member of its Cultural Resource Management (CRM) section with Field Supervisor accreditation in Iron Age and Historical Archaeology.

Principal Conservator and Collections Manager

Gerda Coetzee MA

Gerda-CoetzeeGerda Coetzee matriculated in 1990 at the Paul Kruger High School, Steynsburg, Eastern Cape. She obtained a BA degree through UNISA, majoring in Archaeology and Anthropology, and an Honours degree in Archaeology (cum laude) at the University of Pretoria. She joined the National Museum in September 2005 and since then underwent several courses and workshops in conservation such as metal conservation and ceramic conservation. She obtained a Masters degree in Historical Archaeology through UNISA in 2012. Gerda is a member of the Association for South African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA), as well as the Cultural Resource Management (CRM) section of ASAPA, with Field Supervisor status in Iron Age and Stone Age Archaeology and Field Director status in Colonial Period Archaeology.

Her thesis with the title ‘n Histories-Argeologiese studie van die plaas Welkomskraal, distrik Venterstad, Noordoos-Kaap is available for download at the UNISA Repository.


The thesis is very useful in the identification of archaeological material from colonial sites, especially for Heritage Impact Assessments (HIA).

Abstract: This historical archaeological study provides a baseline description of the material culture of a remote southern African farm occupied between the 1880s and the 1930s. The study is based on a detailed analysis of the excavated finds recovered from middens associated with three homesteads, located on the farm Welkomskraal, in the Venterstad district of the north-eastern Cape. Artefacts were identified using the reference collection of the National Museum in Bloemfontein and commercial adverts. The material culture covers the full spectrum of the daily lives of the farm’s occupants and is complemented by genealogical data, which indicate that the landowners were the descendants of the first trekboers who settled in the area. The occupation of Welkomskraal coincided with the second industrial revolution, which was characterised by mass production of goods and an increasingly global trade network. The assemblage attests that farmers in the deep interior had access to a wide range of imported goods although they were not necessarily prosperous.

Myra-MashimbyeResearch Assistant

Myra Gohodzi MSc

Myra Mashimbye graduated with Archaeology and Physical Geography for her BA and continued her training in southern African archaeology to receive a BA Honours degree at the University of the Witwatersrand. She is currently enrolled at the same university for the degree of Master of Science in Archaeology. Myra was appointed as Research Assistant at the Museum in January 2010.

Thys-UysGeneral AssistantThys Uys

Thys Uys matriculated from Bultfontein High School, Free State Province. He is currently studying towards a BA in Historical Studies, specializing in Archaeology.


Gerda Coetzee is studying the material culture of an old farming community in the Venterstad district, Eastern Cape, while Myra Mashimbye’s research focus is on herding strategies in the Shashe-Limpopo region during the Iron Age. Lloyd Rossouw is working on the palaeoecology of several sites, including the Mio-Pliocene sediments from E Quarry at Langebaanweg, Western Cape Province, the Acheulean and Later Stone Age deposits at Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape Province, the spring deposits at Wonderkrater, Limpopo Province, and late Pleistocene fluvial deposits at Erfkroon along the Modder River, Free State.

Publications - Scientific Articles

Coetzee, G. & Havenga, S. 2013.Kinders en hulle speelgoed: ‘n histories-argeologiese studie van Welkomskraal, ‘n pioniersplaas in die distrik Venterstad. South African Journal of Cultural History 28(1):24-45.

Rossouw, L., Stynder, D.D. and Haarhof, P. 2009. Evidence for opal phytolith preservation in the Langebaanweg ‘E’ Quarry Varswater Formation and its potential for palaeohabitat reconstruction. South African Journal of Science 105: 223 – 227

Codron, D. Brink, J.S., Rossouw, L., Claus, M., Codron, J., Lee-Thorp, J. and Sponheimer, M. 2008. Functional differentiation of African grazing ruminants: an example of specialized adaptations to very small changes in diet. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94: 755–764

Codron, D., Brink, J.S. Rossouw, L. and Clauss, M. 2008. The evolution of ecological specialization in southern African ungulates: competition- or physical environmental turnover? Oikos 117(3): 344 – 353

Henderson, Z.L. 2008. Standards for curation of archaeological material: some thoughts on the issues. South African Archaeological Bulletin 63: 79-81

Backwell, L.R., Steininger, C.M, Brink, J., Neveling, J., Rossouw, L. & Pereira, L. 2007. Large mammal mass death accumulation in the Holocene of South Africa. PSSA, Grahamstown, South Africa. Palaeontologia Africana 42: 118

Brink, J.S., Grun, R., Rossouw, L. and Codron, D. 2007. Mid-Quaternary large mammal succession and extinction in southern Africa. Quaternary International 167 – 168 (3-486)

Rossouw, L and Scott, L. 2006. Ecological significance of South African short-cell phytoliths. 6th Biennial Meeting of the Society for Phytolith Research in Barcelona, Spain, September 2006. Society for Phytolith Research Bulletin 1(1): 14

Curnoe, D., Herries, A., Brink, J., Hopley, P., Van Ryneveld, K., Henderson, Z.L. & Morris, D. 2006. Discovery of Middle Pleistocene fossils and stone tool-bearing deposits at Groot Kloof, Ghaap escarpment, Northern Cape Province. South African Journal of Science 102: 180-184

Sealy, J., Ludwig, B. & Henderson, Z.L. 2006. New Radiocarbon Dates for Matjes River Rock Shelter. South African Archaeological Bulletin 61 (183): 98-101

Henderson, Z.L., Scott, L., Rossouw, L., & Jacobs, Z. 2006. Dating, Palaeoenvironments and Archaeology: a progress report on the Sunnyside 1 Site, Clarens, South Africa. In: Ashmore, W., Dobres, M.A., nelson, S.M. & Rosen, A. (eds). Integrating the Diversity of Twenty-First-Century Anthropology: the Life and Intellectual Legacies of Susan Kent. Archaeological papers of the American Anthropological Association. 16: 139-149

Rossouw, L. 2006. Florisian mammal fossils from erosional gullies along the Modder River at Mitasrust farm, central Free State, South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 22(6): 145-162

Grab, S., Scott, L. Rossouw, L. & Meyer S. 2005. Holocene palaeoenvironments inferred from a sedimentary sequence in the Tsoaing River Basin, western Lesotho. Catena 61: 49 – 62

Scott, L. & Rossouw, L. 2005. Reassessment of botanical evidence for palaeoenvironments at Florisbad, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 60 (182): 96 – 102

Bamford, M. & Henderson, Z.L. 2003. A reassessment of the wooden fragment from Florisbad, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 637-650

L’Abbé, E. Henderson, Z.L. & Loots, M. 2003. Uncovering a nineteenth century epidemic at Koffiefontein, South Africa. World Archaeology 35: 306-318

Henderson, Z.L. 2002. A dated cache of ostrich egg flasks from Thomas’ Farm, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 57: 38-42

Brink, J.S. & Henderson, Z.L. 2001. A high-resolution Last Interglacial MSA Horizon at Florisbad in the context of other open-air occurrences in the central interior of southern Africa: an interim statement. In: Conard, N.J. (ed.) Settlement dynamics of the Middle Palaeolithic and Middle Stone Age. Tubingen: Kerns Verlag. pp 1-20

Henderson, Z.L. 2001. The integrity of the Unit F Middle Stone Age Horizon at Florisbad, South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 17(2): 25-53

Brink, J.S. & Rossouw , L. 2000. New trial excavations at the Cornelia-Uitzoek type locality. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 16(6): 141–156

Churchill, S.E., Brink, J.S., Berger, L.R. Hutchison, R.A., Rossouw L., et al. 2000. Erfkroon: a new Florisian fossil locality from fluvial contexts in the western Free State, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 96: 161 – 163

Jacobson, L., van der Westhuizen, W.A. & Dreyer, J. 1998. The compositional relationship between pottery and its source clay: An example from the work of a traditional potter on the farm Nonnashoek, Bethlehem, Free State.

Dreyer, J. 1997. Slag from Late Iron Age sites: metal-working or cow dung? Research by the National Cultural History and Open-Air Museum 6:90-99

Dreyer, J. 1997. A tuyère fragment from the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve, Ventersburg, Free State. Southern African Field Archaeology 6(2): 88-92

Henderson, Z.L. & Binneman, J. 1997. Changes in the significance of a site: the Klasies Cave Complex in the Middle and Later Stone Ages. In: Bonsall, C. & Tolan-Smith, C. (eds). The Human Use of Caves. Oxford, BAR International Series 667: 175-184

Dreyer, J. 1996. Index to: Maggs, T.M. 1976. The Iron Age Communities of the Southern Highveld. Natal Museum, PietermaritzburgOccasional Paper no. 1. Department of Archaeology, National Museum, Bloemfontein,

Dreyer, J. 1996. Clay "figurines" from the Riet River - A case of natural site formation. Southern African Field Archaeology 5(2): 99-102

Rossouw, L. 1996. The extraction of opal phytoliths from the fossilised teeth of two bovid species from Florisbad. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 12(8): 165 - 175

Dreyer, J. 1995. Late Iron Age sites in the Magaliesberg Valley: Jones' (1935) stone structures revisited. Southern African Field Archaeology 4(1): 50-57

Karstel, M. 1995. The Basotho blanket, borrowed but traditional. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum  11(8): 193-223

Loubser, J.H.N. 1994. Ndebele Archaeology of the Pietersburg area. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 10(2): 62-147

Dreyer, J. 1994. Cartridges and chronology - an excersise in relative dating. Southern African Field Archaeology 3(1): 44-48

Dreyer, J. 1993. The Basotho hut: From Late Iron Age to the present. South African Journal of Ethnology 16(3): 79-86

Loubser, J.H.N. 1993. Ndondondwane: the significance of features and finds from a ninth century site on the lower Thukela River, Natal. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 5: 109-151

Brink, J.S., Dreyer, J.J.B. & Loubser, J.H.N. 1992. Rescue excavations at Pramberg, Jacobsdal, south-western Orange Free State. Southern African Field Archaeology 1(1): 54-60

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1992. The Iron Age Archaeology of Doornpoort, Winburg, Orange Free State. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 8(7): 262-390

Dreyer, J. 1992. A report on the archaeology of the Qwaqwa Museum site. Southern African Field Archaeology 1(2): 80-87

Henderson, Z.L. 1992. The context of some Middle Stone Age hearths at Klasies River Shelter 1B: implications for understanding human behaviour. Southern African Field Archaeology 1: 14-26

Dreyer, J. 1991. Basotho prehistory in the Orange Free State. In: Slotta, R. & Skalli, M. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Preservation and Presentation of the Cultural Heritage of Lesotho. Bochum: German Mining Museum.

Loubser, J.H.N. 1991. The ethnoarchaeology of Venda-speakers in Southern Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum  7(8): 145-164

Loubser, J. & Verhagen, B. 1991. Radiocarbon dates covering the last thousand years in the Soutpansberg area. South African Journal of Science 87: 470-472

Loubser, J.H.N. 1990. Oral traditions, archeology and history of Venda mitupo. African Studies 49: 13-43

Loubser, J.H.N. 1989. Archaeology and early Venda history. In: Deacon, J. (ed.). South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 6: 54-61

Sampson, C.G. 1985. Atlas of Stone Age Settlements in the Central and Upper Seacow Valley. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 20 116 pp

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1975. Tanged and barbed arrowheads. South African Archaeological Bulletin 30: 44

Sampson, C.G. 1972. The Stone Age Industries of the Orange River Scheme and South Africa. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 6 288 pp

Sampson, C.G. 1970. The Smithfield Industrial Complex: Further Field Results. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 5 172 pp

Hoffman, A.C. & Baard, E. 1969. Bushman engravings on walking sticks, magic sticks, a calabash and ostrich egg-shells. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(8): 238-242

Sampson, C.G. 1968. The Middle Stone Age Industries of the Orange River Scheme Area. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 4 111 pp

Sampson, C.G. 1967. Excavations at Zaayfontein Shelter, Norvalspont, Northern Cape.  Researches of the National Museum 2(4): 41-119

Sampson, C.G. 1967. Excavations at Glen Elliot Shelter, Colesberg District, Northern Cape. Researches of the National Museum  2(5): 125-209

Sampson, C.G. 1967. Zeekoegat 13: A Later Stone Age Open-site near Venterstad, Cape. Researches of the National Museum 2(6): 211-237

Sampson, G. & Sampson, M. 1967. Riversmead Shelter: Excavations and Analysis. National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 3 111 pp

Hoffman, A.C. & Esterhuyse, D.J. 1965. Preliminary Report on Archaeological, Palaeontological and Anthropological Field Expeditions in the Orange River Area. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum  2(2): 21-27

Walton, J. 1965. Early Ghoya Settlement in the Orange Free State. National Museum, BloemfonteinMemoir No. 2

Esterhuyse, D.J. 1962. Preliminary Note on Phallic Objects from Spitskop. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(1): 1-5

Louw, J.T. 1960. Prehistory of the Matjes River Rock Shelter.  National Museum, Bloemfontein, Memoir No. 1.

Meiring, A.J.D. 1956. The Macrolithic Culture of Florisbad. Researches of the National Museum  1(9): 205-237

Walton, J. 1953. The Dagga Pipes of Southern Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum  1(4): 85-113

Meiring, A.J.D. 1952. Polished-edge bone implements. Researches of the National Museum 1(2): 30-34

Dreyer, T.F. 1947. Further observations on the Florisbad Skull. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(15): 183-190

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1939. Some aspects in South African Archaeology. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(9): 79-94

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1939. A preliminary account of new South African cultures. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(10): 96-97

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1939. A pre-European Bantu culture in the Lydenburg district. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(5)

Dreyer, T.F. 1938. The Archaeology of the Florisbad Deposits. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(8)

Dreyer, T.F. 1937. The "Wilton" Skulls of the Matjes River Shelter. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(6): 51-79

Dreyer, T.F. 1936. The endocranial cast of the Florisbad Skull - a correction. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(3): 22-23

Dreyer, T.F. 1936. The Significance of the Bushman Skull. Soölogiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum 1(4): 25-31

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. Die oorblyfsels van Buispoort en Braklaagte, noordwes van Zeerust. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(1)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. Nog 'n klippyp van die Kliphutkultuur. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(2)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. 'n Versameling van merkwaardige voorwerpe van die Oer-Bahoeroetsie. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 2(3)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1935. 'n Versameling daggapype uit die distrik Bethlehem. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum  2(4)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Koningse Kultuur. II. Die verspreiding van die Koningse Industrie. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(2)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Suid-Afrikaanse klipwerktuie in internasionale verband. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(3)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Mosselbaaise kultuur. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(4)

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. 'n Nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse Kultuur. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(6): 59-61

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1932. Die Oog van die Leeu. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(7): 63-64

Curson, H.H., Thomas, A.D. & Neitz, W.O. 1932. Studies in Native Animal Husbandry. 3. Native Milking Pails. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(5): 55-58

Van Hoepen, E.C.N. 1928. Die Koningse Kultuur. I. Die Koningse Industrie. Argeologiese Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum 1(1) Published Abstracts

Publications - Popular Articles

Coetzee, G. 2014. Sprinkane – Die agste plaag. Culna 69:14-15.

Coetzee, G. 2013. Bulhoek, meer as net ‘n feesterrein. Culna 68:28-29.

Coetzee, G. 2012. Blik, jou ou doring! Culna 67:33.

Coetzee, G. 2011. Dalk gedink dis net ‘n geroeste ou blik? Aikona! Culna 66:28-29.

Coetzee, G. 2009. Vaalbank – eens ‘n plek van feeste, nou vergete. Culna 64:25-26.

Coetzee, G. 2008. Welkomskraal – die raaisel verdiep. Culna 63: 28-30

Henderson, Z.L. & Koortzen, C. 2008. Maloti Drakensberg Transfrontier Project. Culna 63: 11-12

Philip, L. 2008. Garbology…just a load of rubbish? Culna 63: 35-36

Uys, T. 2008. Ammunition dumps of the Anglo-Boer War. Culna 63: 19-20

Coetzee, G. & Uys, T. 2007. The identification of objects from an Anglo-Boer War rubbish dump. Culna 62: 23-25

Henderson, Z.L. 2007. Badimong – the place of the ancestors. ToGoTo

Rossouw, L. 2007. Direct evidence of grass in the diet of Later Stone Age people. Culna 62: 26-27

Henderson, Z.L. 2006. Walls and a remound farm: the Anglo-Boer War landscape of northern Bloemfontein. Culna 61: 14-15

Coetzee, G. 2005. Vroeë strafmetodes en openbare teregstellings in die Kaapkolonie en Vrystaat. Culna 60: 25-26

Henderson, Z.L. 2005. Modderpoort: a place of replenishment. Nouveau 11: 74-75

Henderson, Z.L. 2003. A miner’s graveyard at Koffiefontein. Culna 58: 33-34

Holt, S. 2002. Boomerangs from Australia. Culna 57: 14-15

Henderson, Z.L. 2001. The Middle Stone Age Horizon at Florisbad. Culna 56: 28-29

Rossouw, L. 2001. The extinct, Giant Long-Horned Buffalo of Africa (Pelorovis antiquus). Culna 56: 14-15

Henderson, Z.L. 2000. Transgariep Branch outing to excavate an ostrich eggshell cache on Thomas's Farm, Belmont, Northern Cape. The Digging Stick 17(2): 1-3

Henderson, Z.L. 1999. Archaeological investigations at Fort Drury. Culna 54: 7-9

Henderson, Z.L. 1997. A bullet hole in the chest. Culna 52: 35-37

Dreyer, J. 1996. The Mountain to Mohammed - A new approach for museums in South Africa. Samantix 25: 6

Dreyer, R. & Dreyer, J. 1996. Natural clay (mud) as a primitive play medium. Kleuterklanke 21(2): 35-36

Henderson, Z.L. 1996. Interesting hippopotamus finds at Florisbad. Culna 50: 29-30

Henderson, Z.L. 1995. The Venters of Florisbad. Culna 48: 14-16

Henderson, Z.L. 1995. Mud packs and mineral baths at Florisbad. Culna 49: 38

Dreyer, J. 1994. Mineralebronne van OVS. Bloemfontein. Annual Report Free State Agricultural Union  97

Dreyer, J. 1994. "Een motorlorrie van die firma Atkinson". Culna 47: 18-20

Henderson, Z.L. 1994. Captain R. Egerton Helme: a benefactor of research. Culna 46: 28-29

Dreyer, J. 1993. Laat Ystertydperk argeologiese terrein op Doornkloof, Lindley. Culna 44: 24-25

Dreyer, J. 1993. Minerale bronne van die Oranje-Vrystaat. Culna 45: 11-13

Dreyer, J. 1992. John Waldemar Daniel Muff-Ford - Kunstenaar. Culna 42: 10-11

Dreyer, J. 1992. Die Sotho-hut: verlede tot hede. Culna 43: 8-10

Henderson, Z.L. 1992. The Florisbad Skull – a diamond jubilee. Culna 43: 18-19

Henderson, Z.L. 1991. Early modern people and the Middle Stone Age connection. Culna 41: 9-10

Loubser, J. 1991. The model of Dzata at the National Museum. Culna 40: 24-25

Coetsee, K. 1990. Die voorvaders roep... Culna 38: 20-22

Loubser, J. 1990. Venda pottery and origins. Culna 38: 27-28

Coetsee, K. 1989. Ydelheid jou naam is vrou. National Museum News 36: 8-11

Coetsee, K. 1989. Die doodskis was 'n kleipot. National Museum News 37: 30-32

Dreyer, J. 1989. Argeologieprojek vir skoliere deur Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein. Education and Culture 12(2): 22-23

Dreyer, J. 1989. Argeologie en bewaring. Cura (Newsletter National Monuments Council, Free State Region) 1: 9-12

Dreyer, J. 1989. An extraordinary tool for archaeological excavations. The Digging Stick 6(3): 4-5

Dreyer, J. 1989. Patroondopppies en Datums - Gebruiksartikels as Dateringsmiddel. National Museum News 36: 26-28

Dreyer, J. 1989. Dr. A.C. Hoffman, Direkteur van die Nasionale Museum, 1951-1969. National Museum News 37: 40-42

Coetsee, K. 1988. Koper in die Ystertydperk. National Museum News 34: 10-11

Coetsee, K. 1988. Sout van die aarde. National Museum News 35: 3-4

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1988. Evelina Mokoena - pottemaakster. National Museum News 34: 4-5

Dreyer, J. 1988. Hoffman-Angola-Ekspedisie. National Museum News 35: 8-9

Coetsee, C.J. 1987. Maphororong - 'n raaisel word ondersoek. National Museum News 32: 6-7

Coetsee, K. 1987. Kannibalisme. National Museum News 33: 14

Dreyer, J. 1987. Generaal C.R. De Wet argeologies ontmoet. National Museum News 32: 10-11

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1987. Die Romantiek van Argeologiese Navorsing. National Museum News 33: 28-29

Coetsee, C.J. 1986. Maphororong. National Museum News 31: 8

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1986. Klipmure vertel verhale. National Museum News 30: 26-28

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1986. "Spreeupotte" en die Sotho-hut. National Museum News 31: 20-21

Henderson, Z.L. 1986. Sterilizing the Past. The Digging Stick. 3(2): 4-5

Dreyer, J.J.B. 1985. Argeologiese opgrawings op Doornpoort 19, Winburg. National Museum News29: 22-24

Dreyer, J. 1982. Argeologie in die Museum. National Museum News 22: 8-9

Dreyer, J. 1976. 'n Ystertydperkterrein in die Botaniese Tuin, Bloemfontein. Veld & Flora, December 1976: 31

Dreyer, J. 1975. Versamel? Ja, maar nie fossiele of klipwerktuie nie. National Museum News 9

Publications - Editorials

Dreyer, J. 1994. Redaksioneel: 1994 - Krisis of keerpunt? Culna 46: 4

Dreyer, J. 1994. Editorial: What's in a name? Culna 47: 4

Dreyer, J. 1995. CULNA FORUM: Preservation - whose responsibility? Culna 48: 5

Dreyer, J. 1996. CULNA FORUM: Culna 50. Culna 50: 5

Dreyer, J. 1998. Waste Management: Its relevance to the Museum. Culna 53

Loubser, J. 1990. Guest editorial: Skeletons in our cupboards: archaeologists and conservation. South African Archaeological Bulletin 45(152): 71-72

Loubser, J. 1991. Editorial: Conserving cultural material, a neglected necessity in South African museums. Culna 40: 3


The Archaeology Collection came into being as a result of early collections by Museum staff as well as various objects that have been donated to the Museum by members of the public.  It now also includes the major collections of Sampson (Stone Age artefacts from the Orange River areas of the Gariep and Van der Kloof dams), Maggs (Iron Age collections from the Free State) and Dreyer (Iron Age collections from the Winburg area), as well as the Matjes River (a Stone Age site from the southern Cape coast), Welbedacht and Doornpoort collections. New material accessioned into the Collection includes material from South African War sites in and around Bloemfontein.


Handaxe, Early Stone Age


Study of African Cultures

The Anthropology Collection, housed in the Collections Management Department, is quite varied and incorporates objects from different parts of the world. The main focus is on southern African material, although most of the African continent is represented in some way in the collection.

For enquiries contact Dr Lloyd Rossouw:


Assistant Museum Scientist

Amy Goitsemodimo MA

Amy-Goitsemodimo HQGosiame “Amy” Goitsemodimo matriculated in 2003 and enrolled for a BA degree in Geography and Environmental Management at the University of the Free State, which she completed in 2006. Her majors were Environmental Management and Anthropology. She completed her Honours in Anthropology the following year. She worked as a Tutor in the Anthropology Department at the University of the Free State for three years and then joined the National Museum in 2008 as a Research Assistant in the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology. In 2009 she was offered a permanent position as Assistant Museum Scientist. Amy is currently doing her Masters in Anthropology under the supervision of Dr Petro Esterhuyse. She is also a member of the Golden Key International Honour Society and Anthropology Southern Africa Students Association.


The Collections Management Department (Humanities) comprises the collections from the Anthropology and History Departments.

Anthropology collection


The Anthropology Collection is relatively small, about 5000 objects, but is quite varied. The Collection incorporates objects from different parts of the world , for example Egypt and Australia.  The main focus is on southern African material, although most of the African continent is represented in some way in the collection.

Loan Policy

The acceptance of material on loan implies that the following conditions have been accepted:

  • The National Museum retains the right to shorten the loan period or to retrieve the loaned material.
  • Loaned objects must be insured against damage, loss and deterioration. The institution accepting the loan is responsible for the insurance costs whilst the objects are in their possession. This includes transport from and to the National Museum.
  • Without the express written permission of the National Museum no material may be altered in any way, dissected, repaired, restored, cleaned or be treated.
  • The National Museum must be credited in any exhibition in which the borrowed material is used.
  • Under no circumstances can labels and other foreign objects be attached to objects to adjust or exhibit the objects. Foreign material includes pins, screws, nails, magic or mirror tape etc.
  • Objects must be protected against natural light, reflected light, Ultra-violet light, Infra red light, humidity, insects and other pests. Ultra violet sleeves must be in use over fluorescent tubes.
  • The National Museum should be informed of any changes relating to the responsible person(s) or management of the loan institution (within a month).
  • All labels and numbers given to material must be retained and under no circumstances should any of these be discarded or altered.
  • Photos may not be removed from their frames or mountings and the National Museum must be credited for the use of such photographs in publications.
  • The National Museum must be credited in any publication in which the borrowed material is used. At least two copies of such publications must be sent to the National Museum.
  • When borrowed material is returned it must be packed in precisely the same way as it was received by using the same packaging materials.
  • Written permission to lengthen the loan period must be done fourteen days (14) before the expiring date of the loan.
  • All objects, excluding glass and ceramics, must be handled with white cotton gloves.
  • The loan material must be handled with the utmost care and respect.
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