The Study of Mites

The Acarology Department (study of mites) came into existence as an independent department at the National Museum in 1969. Prof. R. van Pletzen, former Head of Zoology at the University of the Free State, started oribatid mite taxonomy research at the university. One of his students, Dr C.M. Engelbrecht, took up a post at the National Museum in 1969 and continued the research at the Museum. The research focus at the University changed and the collection of specimens and literature was donated to the Museum. Dr Engelbrecht collected widely throughout South Africa, augmenting the collection fourfold. Research is mainly focussed on taxonomy of Oribatida.

Oribatid mites, also known as soil mites or moss mites, belong to the Class Arachnida, Subclass Acari, Suborder Oribatida (=Cryptostigmata). They range in size from 0.3 – 0.7 mm (with extremes from 0.15 – 2 mm) and occur mainly in the top layer of soil and plant litter, where they occur in large numbers. Abundance and diversity of oribatids vary greatly according to soil conditions. Certain species are also adapted to live on plants, in mosses and lichens and in the marine littoral zone. Soil mites are mostly particle-feeding saprophages (feeding on decaying organic matter) and mycophages (fungus-eating), thereby playing an important role in decomposition of organic material, soil fertility, nutrient cycling and soil formation.


Acarologists appointed Research Associates

Acarologists appointed as Research Associates

11 January 2017
Drs Louise Coetzee (left) and Lizel Hugo-Coetzee have been appointed Research Associates in the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences at the Univeristy of the Free State.  They will be collaborating with the Department of Zoology and Entomology.

EURAAC in Valencia, Spain

10 January 2017
Dr Lizel Hugo-Coetzee attended the 8th symposium of the European Association of Acarologists (EURAAC) in Valencia, Spain in July. There were 140 delegates from 33 countries. Topics included mite taxonomy, ecology, biological control, climate change, invasions and forensics. The title of Lizel’s presentation was Distribution patterns of microarthropods on sub-Antarctic Marion Island across altitude and aspect: climate change implications.

Acarologist attends symposium in Spain

From left: Drs Lizel Hugo-Coetzee (South Africa), Andrea Lienhard (Austria), Julia Jagersbacher-Baumann (Austria), Satoshi Shimano (Japan) and Tobias Pfingstl (Austria).

Mites in Art

12 December 2014
Oliewenhuis Art Museum Education Officer, Yolanda de Kock, came up with the brilliant idea to “pair” departments at the National Museum with contemporary South African artists to observe the investigations, results and activities of researchers and use this information as inspiration to create artworks.

Oribatid mites found their way to two artworks – one by Ben Botma, “Tussen-in” (scraperboard and digital print), and one by Elrie Joubert, who made digital prints from light microscope images. For this project, soil was collected from the garden of Oliewenhuis Art Museum, and the oribatids were extracted, identified and photographed.

The project of combining research, education and exhibition fits the mission of the National Museum perfectly: to provide heritage resources and an enjoyable experience to all people through quality research, conservation, education and exhibitions.

The Inquisitive Mind: Science and Imagination can be viewed at Oliewenhuis Art Museum until 1 February 2015.

Oribatids in art2a

Oribatids in art1a

Second workshop of the Soil Ecosystem Research Group

19 September 2013
Louise Coetzee and Lizel Hugo-Coetzee of the Department of Acarology attended the second meeting of the Soil Ecosystem Research Group (SERG), established in 2011, aiming to form a network to improve communication and develop links between researchers involved in studies of soil biota. The second workshop of SERG was held during the 18th Congress of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa (ESSA XVIII) from 1 to 3 July at Potchefstroom. Progress on a paper to review the status of knowlegde regarding soil biota in South Africa was discussed. The paper is collaboratively drafted with researchers from various institutions and universities, all working on taxonomy of soil biota. Integrative sampling techniques and funding opportunities were also discussed.

Soil Ecosystem Research Group


21 August 2012
Louise Coetzee attended the 7th symposium of the European Association of Acarologists (EURAAC), held from 9 – 13 July 2012 at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria. Louise presented a paper “An overview of the genus Afroleius (Acari, Oribatida)” in which certain character states not previously noticed in this genus were illustrated and a reinterpretation of other characters were discussed.

Apart from the scientific content of a conference, it is also a valuable experience to make social contact with colleagues from all over the world.

Louise Coetzee and Prof Reinhardt Schuster

Louise Coetzee and Prof. Reinhardt Schuster, retired acarologist from Graz, Austria.

Soil Ecology Workshop

21 July 2011
A soil ecology workshop was held on 6 July 2011 during the 17th Congress of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, held at the University of the Free State from 3 – 6 July. The workshop was attended by taxonomists and other researchers concerned with soil biota. Presentations were made by a number of specialists working on various ecologically important soil dwellers. The message from this workshop was clear: the shortage of taxonomists in these groups is severe. A soil ecology research group was established in order to find measures to address this problem.

Louise Coetzee presented a talk “Mites in Soil” pointing out the ecological role of oribatid (soil) mites as well as the taxonomic status of Oribatida in South Africa. Dr Lizel Hugo-Coetzee presented a poster (co-authored by Dr Nico Avenant) “Soil mite (Acari: Oribatida) response to prescribed fire in a central South African grassland”.

SERG 1st meeting

Attendants at the inaugural meeting of the Soil Ecology Research Group (Louise Coetzee 2nd row, second from left; Lizel Hugo-Coetzee 2nd row, third from left).

International Congress of Acarology

6 October 2010

Dr Lizel Hugo-Coetzee from the Acarology Department, National Museum, Bloemfontein, attended the 13th International Congress of Acarology from 23-27 August, 2010, in Recife, Brazil, where she reported on the effect of fire on soil mite communities in Free State grasslands.

The Congress was attended by 380 delegates from 41 countries. Other South Africans present at the Congress were Dr Eddie Ueckermann (Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council), Prof. Pieter Theron (School of Environmental Sciences & Development, North West University), Dr Louwrens Tiedt (Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, North West University) and Dr Jacob den Heyer (Department of Zoology & Entomology, University of the Free State.

group oribatid

Dr Lizel Hugo-Coetzee (4th from left) with participants at the Acarology Congress, Recife, Brazil


Principal Museum Scientist and Head of Department

Lizel Hugo-Coetzee PhD

Lizel-HugoLizel Hugo-Coetzee obtained her BSc, BSc Hons and MSc at the University of the Free State, majoring in Entomology. She obtained her PhD in Conservation Ecology at Stellenbosch University in 2006. Her thesis title was: Spatial patterns in the microarthropod community associated with Azorella selago (Apiaceae) on the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands. Lizel spent a year on Marion Island collecting data for this degree. She started working at the National Museum in January 2006 as a Museum Scientist. Her main interest is the taxonomy of oribatid mites in South Africa, as well as some ecological aspects of oribatid mite communities. Lizel is a Research Associate of the Department of Zoology and Entomology at the University of the Free State. She is also a section editor for the journal, Systematic and Applied Acarology. Lizel has been appointed Head of Department in January 2017.


The objective of this Department is the taxonomic research of Oribatida (Acari) in order to apply our knowledge to control and sustain the condition of soil and the environment. Our main function is to describe the unknown oribatids of South Africa.

Current projects

Lizel Hugo-Coetzee
New species of the Family Oppiidae in South Africa.

Publications - Scientific Articles

Please contact the Acarology department for papers not available from this website.

E.A. Hugo-Coetzee

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A.2017. New Oppiidae (Acari: Oribatida) from Vernon Crookes Nature Reserve, South Africa. Zootaxa 4311(2): 211-232.

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A.; Lotfollahi, P.; Abbasi-Kalo, A.; Movahedzade, E.2017. A new species of Oxyoppia (Oxyoppiella) (Acari, Oribatida, Oppiidae) from Iran. Turkish Journal of Zoology 41: 630-637.

Ermilov, S.G.; Hugo-Coetzee, E.A.; Khaustov, A.A. 2017.  Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) inhabiting nests of the termite Trinervitermes trinervoides (Sjöstedt) in the Franklin Game Reserve (Bloemfontein, South Africa), with description of a new species of the genus Ceratobates (Tegoribatidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology 22(10): 1715-1732.

Ermilov, S.G.; Hugo-Coetzee, E.A.;Theron, P.D.2017. New and interesting moss mites (Acari, Oribatida) from South Africa, with description of two new species. Systematic and Applied Acarology22(10): 1560-1573.

Khaustov, A.A.; Hugo-Coetzee, E.A.; Ermilov, S.G. 2017. A new genus of the mite family Scutacaridae (Acari: Heterostigmata) associated with Trinervitermes trinervoides (Isoptera: Termitidae) from South Africa. Zootaxa 4258(5): 462-476.

Ermilov, S.G.; Hugo-Coetzee, E.A.; Khaustov, A.A. 2017.Contribution to the knowledge of oribatid mites of the family Lohmanniidae (Acari: Oribatida) from South Africa. Systematic and Applied Acarology 22(5): 666-682.

Ermilov, S.G.; Hugo-Coetzee, E.A.; Khaustov, A.A. 2017.Two new species of the genus Ausoribula(Acari, Oribatida, Oribatulidae) from termitaries of South Africa. Acarologia 57(3): 643-650.

Khaustov, A.A.; Hugo-Coetzee, E.A.; Ermilov, S.G. 2017.A new genus and two new species of Pygmephoridae (Acari: Heterostigmata) associated with Trinervitermes trinervoides (Isoptera: termitidae) from South Africa. Systematic and Applied Acarology 22(4): 484-493.

Ermilov, S.G.; Hugo-Coetzee, E.A.; Khaustov, A.A. 2017. Coetzeella navalensis gen. nov. sp. nov. (Acari; Oribatida; Oppiidae) from South Africa.Systematic & Applied Acarology 22(3): 403-409.

Ahaniazad, M., Bagheri, M., Akrami, M.A. & Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2017.  Ameroid mites (Acari; Oribatida) from northwest of Iran with description of a new species of Ctenobelba Balogh, 1943. Systematic & Applied Acarology 22(1): 74–84.

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2016.  New species of Ramusella (Oribatida, Oppiidae) from South Africa with additional notes on R. filamentosa (Mahunka) and R. filigera(Mahunka) Systematic & Applied Acarology,21(2): 227–244

Janion-Scheepers, C. et al. 2016. Soil biota in a megadiverse country: Current knowledge and future research directions in South Africa. Pedobiologia 59: 129-174.

Coetzee, L. 2015. Key to the species of Afroleius Mahunka, 1984 (Acari, Oribatida, Punctoribatidae), recombination of A. polygonatus (Mahunka, 1985), description of A. lucidus sp. nov. and discussion of A. undulatus (Balogh, 1959). Systematic & Applied Acarology 20(4): 383–398. view link

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2014. A new species of Adrodamaeus (Acari, Oribatida, Gymnodamaeidae) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale MuseumBloemfontein, 30(6): 87-99. PDF 1.5 MEG

Coetzee, L. 2014. Rare new species of the genus Afroleius Mahunka, 1984 (Acari, Oribatida, Mycobatidae) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale MuseumBloemfontein, 30(5): 71-85. PDF 1.8 MEG

Coetzee, L. 2014. Afroleius floridus (Mahunka, 1985) comb. nov. and three new Afroleius Mahunka, 1984 species (Acari: Oribatida: Mycobatidae) from South Africa. Zootaxa (4): 553-573.

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2014. New Oppiidae (Acari: Oribatida) from the Golden Gate Highlands National Park in South Africa. Zootaxa 3884(6): 533-552.

Coetzee, L. 2013. New species of the genus Afroleius Mahunka, 1984 (Acari, Oribatida, Mycobatidae) from South Africa. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 59(4): 307-319. PDF 1.9 MEG

Coetzee, L. & Tiedt, L.R. 2013. Overview of the genus Afroleius Mahunka, 1984 Acari, Oribatida). In: Schausberger, P. (ed.) Acari in a changing world: Proceedings of the 7th Symposium of EURAAC, Vienna, 2012. Acarologia 53(2):163-173. PDF 1.1MEG

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2013. New species of Aleurodamaeus Grandjean, 1954 (Oribatida: Aleurodamaeidae) from South Africa. Zootaxa 3670(4): 531-556.

Ermilov, S.G. & Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2012. Two new species of Nothrus (Acari: Oribatida: Nothridae) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 28(2): 25-40. PDF 850 KB

Ermilov, S.G. & Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2012. Valbehanella freestatensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Acari, Oribatida) from South Africa.  Systematic & Applied Acarology 17(4): 407-416.

Ermilov, S.G. & Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2012. Oribatid mites of the genus Eremulus Berlese, 1908 (Acari: Oribatida: Eremulidae) from South Africa.  African Invertebrates 53(2): 559-569. PDF 860KB

Schuster, R.K. & Coetzee, L. 2012. Cysticercoids of Anoplocephala magna (Eucestoda: Anoplocephalidae) experimentally grown in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida). Veterinary Parasitology. view link

Coetzee, L. & Weigmann, G. 2012. Systematic revision of the genus Maudheimia Dalenius, 1958 (Acari: Oribatida). Zootaxa 3295: 65-68.

Ermilov, S.G. & Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2012. The oribatid mite genus Nothrus Koch, 1836 (Acari: Oribatida: Nothridae) of South Africa, including a key to African species.  Zootaxa 3243: 29-51.

Ermilov, S.G. & Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2012. Two new species from South Africa, with remarks on generic diagnosis of Licnodamaeolus Covarrubias, 1998 and taxonomic status of Nacunansella Fernandez & Cleva, 1998 (Acari: Oribatida: Licnodamaeidae). Zootaxa 3167: 32-44.

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. & Avenant, N.L. 2011. The effect of fire on soil oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in a South African grassland.  Zoosymposia 6: 210-220.

Ermilov, S.G., Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. & Khaustov, A.A. 2011. Morphology of juvenile instars of Neoliodes terrestris (Wallwork, 1963) and N. ionicus Sellnick, 1931 (Acari: Oribatida: Neoliodidae).  Annales Zoologici (Warszawa) 61(4): 817-830.

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2011.  Three new species of Austrocarabodes (Oribatida: Carabodidae) and notes on Austrocarabodes pinnatus Mahunka, 1986, from South Africa.  Zootaxa 3011: 1-15.

Hugo-Coetzee, E.A. 2010. Two new species of Austrocarabodes (Acari: Oribatida: Carabodidae) from South Africa: A. mahunkai and A. lineasetosa.  Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein26(2): 45-58. PDF 1 MB

Hugo, E.A. 2010. Two new species of Gymnodamaeidae (Acari: Oribatida) from South Africa.  International Journal of Acarology  36(3): 199-210.

Coetzee, L. 2010. Species or morphological variation? A multivariate morphometric analysis of Afroleius simplex (Acari, Oribatida, Haplozetidae). M.W. Sabelis & J. Bruin (eds).  Trends in Acarology.  pp. 267-269.  PDF 926KB

Sinclair, W., Coetzee, L. & Joubert, G. 2010. House-dust mite species in Bloemfontein, South Africa. South African Medical Journal 95(3): 630-634. PDF 340KB

Hugo, E.A. 2008. Three new species of Austrocarabodes (Oribatida: Carabodidae) from South Africa. Zootaxa 1844: 25-36.

Coetzee, L. 2007.  The genus Afroleius Mahunka (Acari, Oribatida, Haplozetidae) 1. Redescriptions of A. deformisA. minor and A. simplexNavorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 23(3): 101-118.  PDF 1,6MEG.

Akrami, M.A. & Coetzee, L. 2007. Mabulatrichus iranicus (Acari: Oribatida: Zetomotrichidae): a new species from Iran. Systematic and Applied Acarology 12: 245-252.  PDF 93KB

Hugo, E.A., Chown, S.L. & McGeoch, M.A. 2006. The microarthropods of sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Island: a quantitative assessment. Polar Biology, 30(1):109-119  PDF 208KB

Grobler, L., Bayram, S. & Cobanoglu, S. 2005. Two new records of Oribatula (Zygoribatula) species (Acari: Oribatida) from Turkey, with redescriptions. Zoological Science 22:1347-1351.

Hugo, E.A., McGeoch, M.A., Marshall, D.J. & Chown, S.L. 2004. Fine scale variation in microarthropod communities inhabiting the keystone species Azorella selago on Marion Island. Polar Biology, 27(8):466-473.  PDF 201KB

Yamamoto, Y. & Coetzee, L. 2004. The Trimalaconothrus species from South Africa (Acari: Oribatida: Malaconothridae). Acta Arachnologica 53(1): 13-25.  PDF 3.6 MEG

Grobler, L., Bayram, S., & Cobanoglu, S. 2004. Two new species and new records of Oribatid mites from Turkey. International Journal of Acarology 30(4): 351-358.

Yamamoto, Y. & Coetzee, L. 2003. The Malaconothrus species from South Africa and Lesotho (Acari: Oribatida: Malaconothridae). Acta Arachnologica 52(2): 113-126. PDF 3.4 MEG

Grobler, L., Ozman, S.K. & Cobanoglu, S. 2003. The genera LiacarusStenoxenillus and Xenillus (Oribatida: Gustavioidea) from Turkey. Acarologia 43(1): 133-149.

Grobler, L. 2003. The genus Furcoppia (Acari, Oribatida) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 19(7): 161-179

Coetzee, L. & Brink, J.S. 2003. Fossil oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) from the Florisbad Quaternary deposits, South Africa. Quaternary Research 59: 246-254.  PDF 3,3MEG

Coetzee, L. & Marshall, D.J., 2003. A new Halozetes species (Acari: Oribatida: Ameronothridae) from the marine littoral of southern Africa. African Zoology 38(2): 327-331.  PDF 427KB

Coetzee, L. 2003. A new genus and species Floritrichus louisbothai (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodoidea, Zetomotrichidae) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 9(5):93-100. PDF 335KB

Coetzee, L. 2002. Preliminary report on fossil oribatid mites from the Florisbad quaternary research station, South Africa. F. Bernini et al. (eds). Acarid Phylogeny an Evolution Adaptations in mites and ticks, pp. 41-44. PDF 1,3 MEG

Coetzee, L. 2001. Lohmanniidae species (Acari, Oribatida) from the Holocene Deposits at Florisbad, South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein, 17(5):125-134.  PDF 237KB

Coetzee, L. 2001. New species of the Family Lohmanniidae (Acari, Oribatida) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein, 17(3):53-67. PDF 327KB

Heyne, H., Ueckermann, E.A. & Coetzee. L. 2001. First report of a parasitic mite, Leptotrombidium subquadratum (Lawrence) (Acari: Trombiculidae, Trombiculinae), from dogs and children in the Bloemfontein area, South Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 72(2):105-106. PDF 1,3 MEG

Coetzee, L. 2000. A new subspecies of Halozetes belgicae (Acari, Oribatida, Ameronothridae) from the Marine supra-littoral of the sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Acarologia. 15(4):439-447.  PDF 2MEG

Grobler, L & Skubala, P. 2000. Description of Oribatula dentata, sp. nov. (Oribatulidae, Oribatida) from Spain and complementary data on Olongolamellata and O. macrostegaAcarologia 15(3): 343-353.

Marshall, D.J. & Coetzee, L. 2000. Historical biogeography and ecology of a Continental Antarctic mite genus, Maudheimia (Acari, Oribatida): evidence for a Gondwanan origin and Pliocene-Pleistocene speciation. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 129:111-128. PDF 2,6 MEG

Bayartogtokh, B., Grobler, L. & Cobanoglu, S. 2000. A new species of Punctoribates (Acari: Oribatida: Mycobatidae) collected from mushrooms in Turkey, with remarks on the taxonomy of the genus. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 16(2):18-32.

Schuster, R., Coetzee. L. & Putterill, J.F. 2000. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) as intermediate hosts of tapeworms of the Family Anoplocephalidae (Cestoda) and the transmission of Moniezia expansa cysticercoids in South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 67:49-55.  PDF 1.4 MEG

Grobler, L. 2000. Megatrichobates Gen. Nov. (Acari, Oribatida, Oribatulidae) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 16(1):1-14.

Marshall, D.J., Gremmen, N.J.M., Coetzee, L., O'Connor, B.M., Pugh, P.J.A., Theron, P.D. & Ueckermann, E.A. 1999. New records of Acari from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands. Polar Biology 21:84-89.  PDF 2,0 MEG

Grobler, L. 1998. Subfamily Pseudotocepheinae (Acari, Oribatida, Otocepheidae): Constrictocepheusgen. nov. and new Pseudotocepheus species from South Africa Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 14(1): 1-44.

Coetzee, L. 1997. The Antarctic mite genus Maudheimia (Acari, Oribatida). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 13 (3): 101-135.  PDF 4,2 MEG

Grobler, L. 1997. The Subfamily Pseudotocepheinae subfam. nov. (Acari, Oribatida, Otocepheidae). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 13(1): 1-44.

Grobler, L. 1995. Two Otocepheid genera (Acari, Oribatida) from South Africa: Longocepheus Balogh & Mahunka and Trichocepheus Balogh & Mahunka. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 11(10): 261-300.

Grobler, L. 1995. New species of the genus Plenotocepheus Hammer, 1966 (Acari, Oribatida, Otocepheidae) from South Africa II. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum,  Bloemfontein 11(5): 102-118.

Grobler, L. 1995. New species of the genus Plenotocepheus Hammer, 1966 (Acari, Oribatida, Otocepheidae) from South Africa I. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum,  Bloemfontein 11(2): 13-36.

Coetzee, L. 1995. A new species of the genus Saltatrichus Coetzee, 1993 (Acari, Oribatida, Zetomotrichidae) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 11(1): 1-12.  PDF 1,1 MEG

Grobler, L. 1994. Species of the genus Zygoribatula Berlese, 1916 (Acari, Oribatida, Oribatulidae) from South Africa III. Zygoribatula contracta spec. nov. and Zygoribatula setosa Evans, 1953. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 10(6): 261-279.

De Wet, L. 1993. New species of the genus Hermannia Nicolet, 1855 from South Africa II. (Acari, Oribatida, Hermanniidae). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 9(9): 266-287.

Grobler, L. & Kok, D.J. 1993. Species of the genus Zygoribatula Berlese, 1916 (Acari, Oribatida, Oribatulidae) from South Africa II. New and existing species. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 9(6): 182-212.

Coetzee, L. 1993. New genera and species of the family Zetomotrichidae Grandjean, 1954 (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodoidea) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 9(5): 133-179.  PDF 4,1 MEG

Grobler, L. 1993. Species of the genus Zygoribatula Berlese, 1916 (Acari, Oribatida, Oribatulidae) from South Africa I. New species. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum,  Bloemfontein 9(3): 49-76.

De Wet, L. 1993. New species of the genus Hermannia Nicolet, 1855 from South Africa I. (Acari: Oribatida: Hermanniidae). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 9(2): 21-48.

Grobler, L. 1991. A new Brasilobates Perez-Inigo & Baggio, 1980 from South Africa (Acari: Oribatei: Oribatuloidea: Xylobatidae). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum,  Bloemfontein 7(5): 73-95.

Grobler, L. 1989. New South African species of the genus Eupelops Ewing, 1917 (Acari: Oribatei: Phenopelopoidea: Phenopelopidae). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum,  Bloemfontein 6(5): 151-201.

Coetzee, L. 1989. The genus Zetorchestes Berlese, 1888 (Acari, Oribatei, Zetorchestidae) in South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 6(6): 203-221.  PDF 1,5 MEG

Coetzee, L. 1987. The South African Lamellareidae Balogh, 1972 (Acari: Oribatei). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 5(13): 325-353.  PDF 2,9 MEG

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1986. New Oribatid taxa and distribution records predominantly from Southern Africa. (Acari: Oribatei: Oribatelloidea). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 5(9): 170-250.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1975. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Eupelopoidea Balogh, 1963. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 3(5): 89-108.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1975. New Ameronothroid (Oribatei, Acari) taxa from the Republic of South Africa and the Islands Gough and Marion. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum,  Bloemfontein 3(4): 53-88.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1974. The genus Hydrozetes Berlese, 1902. (Oribatei: Acari) in South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 3(3): 41-49.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1974. The genus Passalozetes Grandjean, 1932 (Oribatei: Acari) in South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 3(2): 29-38.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1974. The genus Halozetes (Oribatei: Acari) on Marion Island. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 3(1): 1-25.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1973. Magoebazetes, a new microzetid genus (Microzetidae: Oribatei) from South Africa. Acarologia 14(4): 681-695.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1973. South African Galumnoidea (Oribatei: Acari): New taxa and records. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 2(11): 394-415.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1972. A new South African microzetid genus, Afrozetes (Microzetidae: Oribatei). Acarologia 14(3): 484-496.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1972. Ctenogalumna moresonensis sp. n. and Pilogalumna bloemfonteinensis sp. n., two new South African species of the subfamily Allogalumninae Balogh, 1960 (Galumnidae: Oribatei). Acarologia 14(3): 497-510.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1972. South African species of the genus Trichogalumna Balogh, 1961 (Galumnidae: Oribatei). Acarologia 14(2): 268-280.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1972. Galumnids from South Africa. Acarologia 14(1): 109-140.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1972. Dimidiogalumna  villiersensis (Galumnidae: Oribatei), a new South African galumnid genus and its type species. Acarologia 14(1): 141-149.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1972. A new microzetid genus and species Schalleriella grabouwensis(Microzetidae: Oribatei) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum,  Bloemfontein 2(9): 282-285.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1972. Microzetes auxiliaris orkneyensis s. sp. n. and Microzetes natalensis sp. n. (Microzetidae: Oribatei) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 2(9): 270-281.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1972. Two new species of the genus Rhopalozetes Balogh, 1961 Rhopalozetes georgensis sp. n. and Rhopalozetes witfonteinensis sp. n. (Microzetidae: Oribatei). Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 2(9): 263-269.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1972. Two new species of the genus Galumna Von Heyden, 1826 (Galumnidae: Oribatei) from South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein 2(9): 244-262.

Engelbrecht, C.M. 1969. Some South African species of the genus Galumna Von Heyden, 1826 (Acari: Galumnidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 32(1): 99-122.

Publications - Popular Articles

Articles from Culna 60 onwards available at culna-downloads/

Hugo-Coetzee, L. 2016. Mites at the beach. Culna 71: 14-15

Coetzee, L. 2015. Die alomteenwoordige myte. Culna 70: 20-21.

Hugo-Coetzee, L. 2014. Soil mites on guard. Culna 69:24-25.

Coetzee, L. 2013. Grondmyte en die stryd teen waterhiasinte. Culna 68:11-13.

Hugo-Coetzee, L. 2013. What's in a name? From Hitler to the vuvuzela. Culna 68: 20-21.

Hugo-Coetzee, L. 2012. Die kortafstand ... vir insekte. Culna 67: 26-27

Coetzee, L. 2011. Myte - het ons hulle nodig? Culna 66: 12-14

Hugo-Coetzee, L. 2011. Living Soil. Culna 66: 22-23

Coetzee, L. 2009. Ongewone bedmaats - huisstofmyte. Culna 64: 29-39

Hugo, L. 2009. Describing species - how it is done.  Culna 64: 19-20

Hugo, L. 2008. Goggas in die water. Culna 63: 17-18

Hugo, L. 2007. The sex life of soil mites. Culna 62: 16-17

Coetzee, L. 2006. The Secretarybird - majestic hunter of the plains. Culna 61: 30-31

Hugo, L. 2006. Myte - die agtbenige "ysbere" van Antarktika. Culna 61: 16-17

Coetzee, L. 2005. Chiggers - are your dogs biting their paws? Culna 60: 19-20

Coetzee, L. 2004. What makes an owl? Culna 59: 17-19

Coetzee, L. 2000. Oribatid mites found in the Quaternary sediments at Florisbad. Culna 55: 21

Coetzee, L1998. Wat gaan binne in die grond aan? Culna 53: 16

Coetzee, L. 1984. Oribatei. National Museum News 27: 26-27


Taxonomic research is focussed mainly on the Oribatida.

The collection currently consists of 27 220 oribatid samples (each containing a varying number of specimens), collected from 4 580 localities.  The samples were collected from a wide range of habitats in South Africa, Gough Island and the sub Antarctic Islands Marion and Prince Edward. The specimens are stored in 70% Alcohol + 5% Glycerol.

The holotype collection consists of 223 Oribatida, 19 Astigmata (Analgoidea), collected from birds in South Africa, and 13 Prostigmata (Hygrobatoidea).

The collection of Oribatida holotypes which belongs to the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria,  (formerly the Transvaal Museum), are now at the National Museum, Bloemfontein, on a long term loan. This material comprises oribatids collected from South Africa and studied by Dr. Sandor Mahunka.

Astigmata Holotypes

  • Analgidae
    AnalgidaeAnagles vanasi Mironov & Kopij, 1996
  • Proctophyllodidae
    ProctophyllodidaeMontesauria belozerovi Mironov & Kopij, 1996
     Montesauria emberizae Mironov & Kopij, 1996
     Montesauria jesionowskii Mironov & Kopij, 1997
     Montesauria punctata Mironov & Kopij, 1996
     Montesauria tetralobula Mironov & Kopij, 1996
     Pedanodectes marginatus Mironov & Kopij, 1997
     Proctophyllodes caffer Mironov & Kopij, 1996
     Proctophyllodes leptodiscus Mironov & Kopij, 1996
  • Pteronyssidae

    PteronyssidaeMetapteronyssus angolensis Mironov & Kopij, 2000
     Pteroherpus africanus Mironov & Kopij, 2000
     Pteronyssoides nectariniae Mironov, 2001
     Pteronyssoides promeropis Mironov & Kopij, 2000
     Sturnotrogus creatophorae Mironov & Kopij, 2000
  • Trouessartiidae

    TrouessartiidaeTrouessartia angolensis Mironov & Kopij, 2000
     Trouessartia creatophorae Mironov & Kopij, 1996
     Trouessartia daberti Mironov & Kopij, 2000
     Trouessartia priniae Mironov & Kopij, 2000
     Trouessartia pytiliae Mironov & Kopij, 2000

Oribatida Holotypes

  • Achipteriidae
    AchipteriidaeNovoribatella minutisetarum Engelbrecht, 1986
     Novoribatella pentasetarum Engelbrecht, 1986
  • Aleurodamaeidae
    AleurodamaeidaeAleurodamaeus salvadordalii Hugo-Coetzee, 2013
     Aleurodamaeus vicinus Hugo-Coetzee, 2013
     Aleurodamaeus angelae Hugo-Coetzee, 2013
     Aleurodamaeus niedbalai Hugo-Coetzee, 2013
     Aleurodamaeus minutus Hugo-Coetzee, 2013
     Aleurodamaeus woasi Hugo-Coetzee, 2013
     Aleurodamaeus prominens Hugo-Coetzee, 2013
  • Ameronothridae
    AmeronothridaeAlaskozetes bouvetoyaensis  Van Pletzen & Kok
     Halozetes belgicae mickii  Coetzee, 2000
     Halozetes edwardensis  Van Pletzen & Kok
     Halozetes fulvus  Engelbrecht, 1975
     Halozetes marinus devilliersi  Engelbrecht, 1974
     Halozetes marionensis  Engelbrecht, 1974
  • Aquanothridae
    AquanothridaeAquanothrus montanus Engelbrecht, 1975
  • Carabodidae
    CarabodidaeAustrocarabodes hendriksi Hugo, 2008
     Austrocarabodes luciensis Hugo, 2008
     Austrocarabodes vernoncrookensis Hugo, 2008
     Austrocarabodes mahunkai Hugo-Coetzee, 2010
     Austrocarabodes lineasetosa Hugo-Coetzee, 2010
     Austrocarabodes nortoni Hugo-Coetzee, 2011
     Austrocarabodes longisetosus Hugo-Coetzee, 2011
     Austrocarabodes crassimarginatus Hugo-Coetzee, 2011
  • Crotonidae
    CrotonidaeCrotonia dicella Colloff, 1990
     Crotonia ecphyla Colloff, 1990
     Crotonia lyrata Colloff, 1990
     Crotonia pauropelor Colloff, 1990
  • Cymbaeremaeidae
    CymbaeremaeidaeScapheremaeus pundamiliaensis  Engelbrecht, 1975
     Scapheremaeus rustenburgenesis  Engelbrecht, 1975
  • Eremaeozetidae
    EremaeozetidaeEremaeozetes capensis Schatz, 2001
     Eremaeozetes louisae Schatz, 2003
     Eremaeozetes nasutus Schatz,  2003
     Mahunkaia tricornis Schatz, 2002
  • Eremulidae
    EremulidaeEremulus spindleformis Ermilov & Hugo-Coetzee, 2012
     Eremulus southafricanensis Ermilov & Hugo-Coetzee, 2012
  • Euphthiracaridae
    EuphthiracaridaeAcrotritia minuta Niedbała, 2006
     Euphthiracarus rectus Niedbała, 2006
     Euphthiracarus scuticus Niedbała, 2006
  • Galumnellidae
    GalumnellidaeGalumnella pilosa Engelbrecht, 1972
  • Galumnidae
    GalumnidaeCtenogalumna moresonensis Engelbrecht, 1972
     Dimidiogalumna villiersensis Engelbrecht, 1972
     Galumna capensis capensis Engelbrecht, 1969
     Galumna capensis dissimilis Engelbrecht, 1969
     Galumna comparabilis Engelbrecht, 1969
     Galumna dimidiata Engelbrecht, 1969
     Galumna nuda Engelbrecht, 1969
     Galumna rostrata Engelbrecht, 1969
     Galumna tricuspidata Engelbrecht, 1969
     Pergalumna elongata Engelbrecht, 1972
     Pergalumna incomperta Engelbrecht, 1972
     Pergalumna magnipora capensis Engelbrecht, 1972
     Pilogalumna bloemfonteinensis  Engelbrecht, 1972
     Pilogalumna kimberleyensis Engelbrecht, 1972
     Pilogalumna variabilis Engelbrecht, 1972
     Sacculogalumna saccularis Engelbrecht1973
     Trichogalumna pumularis Engelbrecht, 1972
     Trichogalumna punctata Engelbrecht, 1972
  • Gymnodamaeidae
    GymnodamaeidaeArthrodamaeus johanni Hugo, 2009
     Gymnodamaeus deswardti Hugo, 2009
     Adrodamaeus ermilovi Hugo-Coetzee, 2014
  • Hermanniidae
    HermanniidaeHermannia comparabilis De Wet, 1993
     Hermannia engelbrechti De Wet, 1993
     Hermannia exobothridialis De Wet, 1993
     Hermannia louisiae De Wet, 1993
     Hermannia natalensis De Wet, 1993
     Hermannia nathanaeli De Wet, 1993
     Hermannia notogastralis De Wet, 1993
     Hermannia phylliformis De Wet, 1993
     Hermannia setiformis De Wet, 1993
     Hermannia transvaalensis De Wet, 993
  • Hydrozetidae
    HydrozetidaeHydrozetes capensis Engelbrecht, 1975
  • Lamellareidae
    LamellareidaeLamellarea ardua Kok, 1968
     Lamellarea digitata Kok, 1968
     Lamellarea forceps Kok, 1968
     Lamellarea quadrata Coetzee, 1986
     Microlamellarea engelbrechti Coetzee, 1986
  • Licnodamaeidae
    LicnodamaeidaeLicnodamaeolus asetosus Ermilov & Hugo-Coetzee, 2012
     Licnodamaeolus erfenisdamensis Ermilov & Hugo-Coetzee, 2012
  • Lohmanniidae
    LohmanniidaeAnnectacarus eksteeni Coetzee, 2001
     Papillacarus brinki Coetzee, 2001
     Paulianacarus barlowi Coetzee, 2001
     Paulianacarus grobleri Coetzee, 2001
  • Malaconothridae
    MalaconothridaeMalaconothrus longidorsus Yamamoto & Coetzee, 2004
     Malaconothrus minimus Yamamoto & Coetzee, 2004
     Malaconothrus stigmatus Yamamoto & Coetzee, 2004
     Trimalaconothrus binodulus Yamamoto & Coetzee, 2004
     Trimalaconothrus duaculeus Yamamoto & Coetzee, 2004
     Trimalaconothrus obesus Yamamoto & Coetzee, 2004
     Trimalaconothrus punctum Yamamoto & Coetzee, 2004
     Trimalaconothrus rectus Yamamoto & Coetzee, 2004
  • Maudheimiidae
    MaudheimiidaeMaudheimia marshalli  Coetzee, 1997
     Maudheimia tanngardenensis  Coetzee, 1997
  • Mesoplophoridae
    MesoplophoridaeMesoplophora iuvenalis Niedbała, 2006
     Mesoplophora pertenuis Niedbała, 2006
     Mesoplophora setulosa Niedbała, 2006
  • Metrioppiidae
    MetrioppiidaeFurcoppia dentata Grobler, 2003
     Furcoppia longiseta Grobler, 2003
     Furcoppia minuta Grobler, 2003
  • Microzetidae
    MicrozetidaeAfrozetes champaignensis  Engelbrecht, 1972
     Afrozetes magoebaensis capensis  Engelbrecht, 1972
     Afrozetes magoebaensis magoebaensis  Engelbrecht, 1972
     Afrozetes natalensis  Engelbrecht, 1972
     Magoebazetes magoebaensis  Engelbrecht, 1973
     Magoebazetes natalensis  Engelbrecht, 1973
     Magoebazetes pentasetarum  Engelbrecht, 1973
     Microzetes auxiliaris orkneyensis  Engelbrecht, 1972
     Microzetes natalensis  Engelbrecht, 1972
     Rhopalozetes georgensis  Engelbrecht, 1972
     Rhopalozetes witfonteinensis  Engelbrecht, 1972
     Schalleriella grabouwensis  Engelbrecht, 1972
  • Nothridae
    NothridaeNothrus bilongisetosus Ermilov & Hugo-Coetzee, 2012
     Nothrus monolongisetosus Ermilov & Hugo-Coetzee, 2012
     Nothrus louiseae Ermilov & Hugo-Coetzee, 2012
     Nothrus engelbrechti Ermilov & Hugo-Coetzee, 2012
  • Oppiidae
    OppiidaeAmerioppia africana Kok, 1967
     Brachioppia longisetosa Kok, 1967
     Brachioppia moresonensis Kok, 1967
     Brachioppia orkneyensis Kok, 1967
     Brachioppia pectinata Kok, 1967
     Brachioppia quathlambae Kok, 1967
     Oppia falxa Kok, 1967
     Oppia parva Kok, 1967
     Oppia pletzenae Kok, 1967
     Oppia quattuor Kok, 1967
     Oppia yodai africana Kok, 1967
     Brachioppia louwi Hugo-Coetzee, 2014
     Brachioppiella (Bdawidi Hugo-Coetzee, 2014
     Brachioppiella (Bgoblina Hugo-Coetzee, 2014
     Kokoppia mandelai Hugo-Coetzee,  2014
     Lanceoppia scytheae Hugo-Coetzee, 2014
     Oppiella (Quattoppiellagoldengatensis Hugo-Coetzee, 2014
  • Oribatulidae
    OribatulidaeMegatrichobates longisetosus Grobler, 2000
     Megatrichobates striatus Grobler, 2000
     Zygoribatula connexa substriata Grobler, 1993
     Zygoribatula gracilata Grobler, 1993
     Zygoribatula lineaporosa Grobler, 1993
     Zygoribatula pennata Grobler, 1993
     Zygoribatula robusta Grobler, 1993
     Zygoribatula subantarctica Van Pletzen & Kok
  • Oribotritiidae
    OribotritiidaeAustrotritia engelbrechti Niedbała, 2006
     Indotritia cypha Niedbała, 2006
     Indotritia didyma Niedbała, 2006
     Indotritia eksteeni Niedbała, 2006
     Indotritia fusa Niedbała, 2006
     Indotritia partita Niedbała, 2006
     Indotritia phymatha Niedbała, 2006
     Oribotritia deminuta Niedbała, 2006
  • Otocepheidae
    OtocepheidaeLongocepheus globosus Grobler, 1995
     Plenotocepheus crinitus Grobler, 1995
     Plenotocepheus dentatus Grobler, 1995
     Plenotocepheus discrepans Grobler, 1995
     Plenotocepheus verrucosus Grobler, 1995
     Pseudotocepheus aokii Grobler, 997
     Pseudotocepheus contractus Grobler, 1997
     Pseudotocepheus dentatus Grobler, 1998
     Pseudotocepheus lanceolatus Grobler, 1998
     Pseudotocepheus promissus Grobler, 1998
     Pseudotocepheus shauni Grobler, 1997
     Trichocepheus auriculus Grobler, 1995
  • Parakalummidae
    ParakalummidaeCarinogalumna montana Engelbrecht, 1973
  • Passalozetidae
    PassalozetidaePassalozetes douglasensis  Engelbrecht, 1974
     Passalozetes wolwekransensis  Engelbrecht, 1974
  • Phenopelopidae
    PhenopelopidaeEupelops capensis  Grobler, 1989
     Eupelops curtipilus thabazimbiensis  Engelbrecht, 1975
     Eupelops distinctus  Grobler, 1989
     Eupelops engelbrechti  Grobler, 1989
     Eupelops foveolatus  Engelbrecht, 1975
     Eupelops margatensis  Engelbrecht, 1975
     Eupelops minutus  Grobler, 1989
  • Phthiracaridae
    PhthiracaridaePhthiracarus anakolos Niedbała, 2006
     Phthiracarus blythedalensis Niedbała, 2006
     Phthiracarus densus Niedbała, 2006
     Phthiracarus hillcrestensis Niedbała, 2006
     Phthiracarus humilis Niedbała, 2006
     Phthiracarus kokae Niedbała, 2006
     Phthiracarus leliehoekensis Niedbała, 2006
     Phthiracarus pertenuis Niedbała, 2006
  • Punctoribatidae
    PunctoribatidaeAfroleius crassus Coetzee, 2013
     Afroleius decurvatus Coetzee, 2013
     Afroleius deformatoides Coetzee, 2013
     Afroleius amieae Coetzee, 2014
     Afroleius inae Coetzee, 2014
     Afroleius valerieae Coetzee, 2014
     Afroleius natalensis Coetzee, 2014
     Afroleius caudatus Coetzee, 2014
     Afroleius lucidus Coetzee, 2015
  • Scheloribatidae
    ScheloribatidaeScheloribates durbanensis Van Pletzen, 1963
     Scheloribates elsi Van Pletzen, 1965
     Scheloribates louwi Van Pletzen, 1965
     Scheloribates minutus Van Pletzen, 1965
     Scheloribates natalensis Van Pletzen, 1963
     Scheloribates parvus Van Pletzen, 1963
     Scheloribates robustus Van Pletzen, 1963
     Scheloribates rustenburgensis Van Pletzen, 1963
     Scheloribates tzitzikamaenesis Van Pletzen, 1965
     Scheloribates variabilis Van Pletzen, 1965
  • Scutoverticidae
    ScutoverticidaeScutovertex sculperens Kok, 1968
     Scutoverticosus arcanus Kok, 1968
  • Steganacaridae
    SteganacaridaeArphthicarus bulbosus  Niedbała, 2006
     Atropacarus brevisetosus  Niedbała, 2006
     Austrophthiracarus cordylus  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus agulhasensis  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus capevidalensis  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus coetzeeae  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus cristatus  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus frondeus  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus gongylos  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus grossus  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus knysnaensis  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus korannabergensis  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus mekistos  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus natalensis  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus phyllodes  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus procerus  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus pumilus  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus rhachis  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus serratus  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus tsitsikamaensis  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus vernonensis  Niedbała, 2006
     Notophthiracarus zululandensis  Niedbała, 2006
     Protophthiracarus crinatus  Niedbała, 2006
     Protophthiracarus engelbrechti  Niedbała, 2006
  • Tectocepheidae
    TectocepheidaeTegeocranellus knysnaensis Kok, 1968
     Tegeocranellus sacchareus Kok, 1968
  • Tegoribatidae
    TegoribatidaeTegoribates montana Engelbrecht, 1986
     Tegoribates natalensis Engelbrecht, 1986
     Tegoribates nuda Engelbrecht, 1986
  • Unduloribatidae
    UnduloribatidaeValbehanella freestatensis Ermilov & Hugo-Coetzee, 2012
  • Xylobatidae
    XylobatidaeBrasilobates punctata Grobler, 1991
  • Zetomotrichidae
    ZetomotrichidaeDemisalto engelbrechti Coetzee, 1993
     Floritrichus louisbothai Coetzee, 2003
     Mabulatrichus dentatus Coetzee, 1993
     Saltatrichus magnus Coetzee, 1993
     Saltatrichus marshalli Coetzee, 1995
     Saltatrichus minus Coetzee, 1993
     Saltatrichus robustus Coetzee, 1993
  • Zetorchestidae
    ZetorchestidaeZetorchestes transvaalensis Coetzee, 1989

Prostigmata Holotypes

  • Hygrobatidae
    HygrobatidaeHygrobates draconicus Smit, 2005
     Hygrobates inflatipes Smit, 2005
     Hygrobates laceratoides Smit, 2005
     Hygrobates spathuliferus cederberg Smit, 2005
     Atractides capensis Pesic, Smit & Gerecke, 2011
     Atractides cooki Pesic, Smit & Gerecke, 2011
     Atractides dracomontanus  Pesic, Smit & Gerecke, 2011
     Atractides meridianus  Pesic, Smit & Gerecke, 2011
     Atractides neoscutifer Pesic, Smit & Gerecke, 2011
  • Torrenticolidae
    TorrenticolidaeMonatractides nigromontanus  Goldschmidt & Smit, 2009
     Monatractides drakenbergensis  Goldschmidt & Smit, 2009
     Torrenticolidae spatulifra  Goldschmidt & Smit, 2009
     Torrenticola tsitsikamma  Goldschmidt & Smit, 2009
Loan Policy

The acceptance of material on loan implies that the following conditions have been accepted:

  1. Loan material must be handled with the utmost care and must be securely packed for return by insured or registered mail.
  2. National Museum specimens described as holotypes must be returned.
  3. All labels and numbers given to specimens/objects must be retained and under no circumstances should any of these be discarded or altered. Where applicable the catalogue numbers of specimens/objects must be given in descriptions.
  4. The National Museum should be credited in any publication when referring to this material. 
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